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Item #d91may62

Policy Implications of Greenhouse Warming, 127 pp., Apr. 1991. Produced by the Comm. on Sci., Eng. & Public Policy, National Academies of Sci. and Eng. and Inst. of Medicine. Available from Nat. Acad. Press, 2101 Constitution Ave. NW, Washington DC 20418 (800-624-6242 or 202-334-3313); $14.95 + $3 postage in the U.S.

(See News, this Global Climate Change Digest issue--May 1991.) Concerned with the possibility of unsuspected surprises in the climate that may result from the rise of greenhouse gases, the panel recommends a mix of actions expected to reduce U.S. emissions 10-40% below the 1990 level, mostly using technology now available. In addition to aggressively eliminating CFCs, improving energy efficiency and developing new generation nuclear reactors, it calls for study and eventual introduction of "full social cost pricing" of energy. Geoengineering approaches such as ocean fertilization, alteration of cloud abundance and use of space mirrors should be considered and their environmental impact carefully evaluated. Adaptation approaches include increasing the efficiency of water use and steps to slow losses in biodiversity.

Item #d91may63

Greenhouse Gas Emissions: The Energy Dimension, 199 pp., Apr. 1991. Produced by the secretariats of the Intl. Energy Assoc. and the Org. for Econ. Coop. & Devel. (OECD). Available from OECD Pubs., 2001 L St. NW, S-700, Washington DC 20036 (202-785-6323), or OECD, 2 rue André-Pascal, 75775 Paris Cedex 16, France; $40.

Produced under an "expedited" process which omits member country review, this report is a revision of the OECD contribution to the IPCC and is subject to further development. It examines the contribution and growth in greenhouse gases from energy related sources to the year 2005, technologies for controlling them, and policy options for limiting emissions. According to an article in Intl. Environ. Rptr. (pp. 190-191, Apr. 10), unique features of the analysis are its world outlook based on IEA's previous experience in energy analysis, and the fact that it considers barriers to proposed policy instruments for individual energy sectors.

Item #d91may64

Our Changing Planet: The FY 1991 Research Plan--U.S. Global Change Research Program, 250 pp., Oct. 1990. Available (no charge) from Comm. Earth/Environ. Sci., c/o U.S. Geological Survey, 104 National Ctr., Reston VA 22092 (703-648-4450).

Gives details of interagency research coordination for fiscal year 1991, expanding on the summary published with the President's budget proposal in Jan. 1990.

Item #d91may65

The following were recently distributed by the Global Environ. Studies Ctr., Oak Ridge Nat. Lab., POB 2008, Oak Ridge TN 37831 (615-574-5348). The center is continuing work on issues of global environmental cooperation, this year focusing on the institutional, political, legal and socioeconomic capabilities of various key actors to implement any carbon reduction agreements that may result from a climate convention. Reports on Brazil, China, the European Community, India, Indonesia, the USA and the USSR should be ready by fall.

Managing the Global Commons: Decision Making and Conflict Resolution in Response to Climate Change (ORNL/TM-11619), S. Raynor, W. Naegeli, P. Lund, 86 pp., July 1990. Contains plenary paper abstracts, a full introductory paper by W. Riebsame, and reports from working groups at this Nov. 1990 workshop (Boulder, Colo.). A major conclusion is that social scientists should move from conceptual formation to nailing down needs for data, and then generate concrete, quantitative findings. (See also Evaluation Review, Feb. 1991 for workshop papers--Global Climate Change Digest, Prof. Pubs./Gen. Interest & Policy, Apr. 1991.)

Managing Global Climate Change through International Cooperation: Lessons from Prior Resource Management Efforts (ORNL/TM-10914), D.L. Feldman, 70 pp., July 1990. Successful international cooperation (in such areas as nuclear materials and technology, water pollution and ozone layer protection) shows that effective strategies for managing climate change are available but require institutional modification and patience. One lesson is that effective international cooperation is the result of an incremental and iterative learning process among scientists, politicians and others involved.

Greenhouse Gas Emissions in Sub-Saharan Africa (ORNL-6640), R.L. Graham, G.D. Perlack et al., 135 pp., Nov. 1990. Current and future carbon emissions from land-use change and energy consumption were analyzed based on U.N. data and a land-use model developed for this project. Of three land use options for reducing emissions, aggressive forest protection has the greatest benefit; widespread adoption of agroforestry would also be effective. Several land-use policy recommendations are made.

Item #d91may66

A Framework for Research on the Human Dimensions of Global Environmental Change (ISSC/UNESCO Ser. No. 3), H.K. Jacobsen, M.F. Price (for the ISSC Standing Comm. on the Human Dimensions of Global Change), 61 pp., 1991. Available from Intl. Social Sci. Council, 1 rue Miollis, 75015 Paris, France (tel: 33-1-45682558).

Developed by the international ISSC committee over the last few years, this plan proposes studies that will require conceptual, theoretical and methodological development in the social sciences, and collaboration between social and natural scientists. Research involves seven topics: (1) social dimensions of resource use; (2) perception and assessment of global environmental conditions and change; (3) impacts of local, national, and international social, economic, and political structures and institutions; (4) land use; (5) energy production and consumption; (6) industrial growth; (7) environmental security and sustainable development.

Item #d91may67

The Global Environmental Facility--Sharing Responsibility for the Biosphere, D. Reed (Multilateral Development Bank Prog.), 18 pp., 1991. Available (no charge) from World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF), attn: Monica Chacone, 1250 24th St. NW, Washington DC 20037 (202-293-4800).

WWF strongly endorses the stated objectives of the Global Environment Facility (GEF), managed by the World Bank, UNEP and UNDP to provide grants and concessional loans to developing countries for environmental objectives. However, WWF believes the existing institutional framework must be significantly improved to accomplish those objectives. In this report WWF explains its perception of the significant opportunities presented by the GEF to encourage broad public participation in its activities. Includes recommendations for specific projects and institutional approaches.

Item #d91may68

Assessing Carbon Emissions Control Strategies: A Carbon Tax or a Gasoline Tax? (ACEEE Policy Paper No. 3), W.U. Chandler (Battelle Memorial Inst., Wash., D.C.), A.K. Nicholls, 53 pp., Feb. 1990. Available from Amer. Council for an Energy-Efficient Economy (ACEEE), 1001 Connecticut Ave. NW, Washington DC 20036 (202-429-8873); $7.

Assesses the effectiveness, fairness and economic implications for the U.S. of these two proposed measures. Estimates that a carbon tax would reduce carbon emissions two to three times as much as a gasoline tax, or 14-20% of present emissions, but a gasoline tax could provide greater national security and trade deficit reduction. In either case a zero tax increase could be achieved by using revenues to offset other taxes.

Item #d91may69

The following, from Britain, are discussed by J. Rose in Chem. & Industry, p. 111, Feb. 18, 1991:

The Wealth of Nations and the Environment, M. Bernstam (Stanford Univ., Stanford, Calif.), 1990. Published by Inst. Econ. Affairs, 2 North St., London SW1P 3LB. Argues that elaborate international controls like regulations or taxes will only lead to economic stagnation; the environment is best served through continuous economic growth. Based on a relationship derived from data between energy consumption and gross national product.

Britain in 2010, 1990. Published by Policy Studies Inst., c/o BEBC Ltd., 9 Albion Close, Parkstone, Bournemouth BH12 3LL. Focuses on three economic strategies for the U.K., including one with tough pollution regulations and a carbon tax on fossil fuels rising steadily to 200% by 2010. Concludes that environmental economics will scarcely affect economic growth.

Report of the Preparatory Committee for the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development, 1990. "Charting the Course for '92" (Environment, pp. 17-20; 39-44, Jan./Feb. 1991) contains edited excerpts of the committee's report, which reveal the tone and the major issues to be addressed at the June 1992 conference.

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