February 28, 2007
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Global Climate Change Digest
A Guide to Information on Greenhouse Gases and Ozone Depletion
Published July 1988 through June 1999
FROM VOLUME 4, NUMBER 11, NOVEMBER 1991
"Do Bidecadal Oscillations Exist in the Global Temperature Record?"
J.B. Elsner (Dept. Meteor., Florida State Univ., Tallahassee FL 32036), A.A.
Tsonis, Nature, 353(6344), 551 ff., Oct. 10, 1991.
Recently Ghil and Vautard concluded that any greenhouse warming signal will
not be detectable for at least one or two more decades, because they had found a
bidecadal oscillation (attributed to oceanic circulation) in a spectrum analysis
of temperature records. This study analyzed the same data, as well as five other
temperature records, but found no evidence of a bidecadal oscillation.
"On the Utility of Radiosonde Humidity Archives for Climate Studies,"
W.P. Elliott (ARL, NOAA, Silver Spring MD 20910), D.J. Gaffen, Bull. Amer.
Meteor. Soc., 72(10), 1507-1520, Oct. 1991. Comprehensively reviews
the idiosyncrasies of U.S. radiosonde data, concluding that the water vapor
climatology in the upper troposphere is not well known.
Two articles from: J. Geophys. Res., 96(D9), Sep. 20,
"Global Average Ozone Change from Nov. 1978 to May 1990," J.R.
Herman (Lab. Atmos., NASA-Goddard, Greenbelt MD 20771), R. McPeters et al.,
17,297-17,305, Sep. 20, 1991. Recent recalibration and reprocessing of the TOMS
data have determined that the global (69° S to 69° N) total ozone
decrease over the 11-year period is 3.5%, in agreement with ground-based Dobson
data. Removal of the apparent solar cycle effect reduces the net ozone loss to
2.66% per decade.
"Tropospheric Ozone in the Nineteenth Century: The Moncalieri Series,"
D. Anfossi (Inst. Cosmogeofis., Consiglio Nazionale Richerche, Corso Fiume 4,
10137 Torino, Italy), S. Sandroni, S. Viarengo, 17,349-17,352. Analyzed a
26-year (1868-1893) series of daily ozone readings performed at Moncalieri,
northern Italy, by the Schönbein test paper technique, and converted the
data to ppbv values. In comparison to one century ago, the ozone level in Europe
has more than doubled at the surface and in the free troposphere.
Three articles from: Atmos. Environ., 25A(9), 1991.
"Trend Analysis of Tropospheric Ozone Concentrations Utilizing the
20-Year Data Set of Ozone Balloon Soundings over Payerne (Switzerland)," J.
Staehelin (Atmos. Phys., ETH-Hönggerberg, 8093-Zürich, Switz.), W.
Schmid, 1739-1749. The series indicates an increase in annual mean
concentrations of about 1% per year since 1969 in the upper troposphere. Trends
for the lower troposphere, corrected for diurnal variation of ozone, are as high
as 1.6% per year. Observed increases occurred mostly after 1981.
"A One-Year Record of Ozone Profiles in an Alpine Valley
(Zillertal/Tyrol, Austria, 600-2000 m a.s.l.)," H. Puxbaum (Inst. Anal.
Chem., Tech. Univ. Vienna, A-1060 Vienna, Austria), K. Gabler et al., 1759-1765.
Data taken throughout 1987 support an ozone increase of a factor of two or three
since the 1950s in the free troposphere of the Eastern Alps.
"Surface Ozone and Meteorological Predictors on a Subregional Scale,"
U. Feister (Meteor. Serv. GDR, Main Meteor. Observ., Telegrafenberg, Potsdam,
DDR-1561, Ger.), K. Balzer, 1781-1790. Analysis of data from five stations in
Germany during 1972-1987 shows that changes in cloudiness are probably not the
main cause of long-term changes in surface ozone; they must be related to
changes in circulation or ozone precursors.
"Wave Climate Changes in the North Atlantic and North Sea," S.
Bacon (Inst. Oceanog. Sci., Deacon Lab., Brook Rd., Wormley, Surrey, GU8 5UB,
UK), D.J.T. Carter, Intl. J. Climatol., 11(5), 545-558, Aug.
1991. Reviewing all available data describing long-term trends in the wave
climate, using both visual and instrumental estimates of wave height, showed an
increase in mean wave height over the whole of the North Atlantic in recent
years (possibly since 1950) of about 2% per year.
Two articles from: J. Clim., 4(8), Aug. 1991.
"Recent Interannual Variations in Solar Radiation, Cloudiness and
Surface Temperature at the South Pole," E.G. Dutton (Clim. Monitor. Lab.,
ERL/NOAA, 325 Broadway, Boulder CO 80303), R.E. Stone et al., 848-858. Examines
year-to-year variability in the weekly, monthly and yearly average solar
irradiance for 1976-1989, and monthly averages of observed sky cover and air
temperature. Irradiance unexpectedly decreased steadily by 15% over the period
during the late austral summer season, and was accompanied by increasing cloud
cover; no trend is apparent for September through December.
"Secular Trend Surface Temperature at an Elevated Observatory in the
Pyrenees," A. Bücher (Observ. Midi-Pyrénées, Univ. P.
Sabatier, Toulouse, France), J. Dessens, 859-868. Mean annual temperature
increased 0.83° C from 1882 to 1970 at an observatory located above the
planetary boundary layer (2862 m MSL). Daily minimum temperature increased more
(+2.11° C) while daily maximum decreased by 0.45° C. A 15% increase
observed in mean annual cloudiness suggests the temperature trend probably
results from increased cloud cover and possibly an increasing greenhouse effect.
Two articles from J. Geophys. Res., 96(D8), Aug. 20,
"Spectroscopic Observations of Atmospheric Trace Gases over Kitt Peak.
3. Long-Term Trends of Hydrogen Chloride and Hydrogen Fluoride from 1978 to
1990," L. Wallace (Kitt Peak Observ., POB 26732, Tucson AZ 85726), W.
Livingston, 15,513-15,521. Over the 12-year period HCl increased by a factor of
two and HF by a factor of three. The fractional increases for these species,
found primarily in the stratosphere, are comparable to published increases in
the ground level concentrations of the halocarbons. The close correlation
observed in the complicated variability of the species indicates a single
mechanism is primarily responsible.
"Infrared Measurements of HF and HCl Total Column Abundances above Kitt
Peak," 1977-1990: Seasonal Cycles, Long-Term Increases and Comparisons with
Model Calculations," D.G. Rinsland (Atmos. Sci. Div., NASA-Langley, Hampton
VA 23665), J.S. Levine et al., 15,523-15,540. Over the 13-year period, the HCl
and HF total columns increased by factors of 1.8 and 3.2, respectively. The
seasonal cycles show an early spring maximum and an early fall minimum. Results
are compared with those of a 2-D, time-dependent photochemical model.
"Global Warming as a Manifestation of a Random Walk," A.H.
Gordon (Inst. Atmos. Sci., Flinders Univ. S. Australia, Bedford Pk., S.
Australia), J. Clim., 4(6), 589-597, June 1991.
Examines year-to-year changes in global and hemispheric series of surface
temperature anomalies to isolate any features that might contribute to the
global warming of about 0.5° C observed over the past 100 years.
Hypothesizes that the series are the result of a Markov process; the climate
system is subjected to various forms of random impulses, but fails to return to
its former state after reacting to an impulse because a net positive feedback
slightly alters the environmental state.
"Some Updated Statistical Assessments of the Surface Temperature
Response to Increased Greenhouse Gases," D.-D. Schönwiese (Inst.
Meteor., Univ. Frankfurt, Feldbergstr. 47, D-6000 Frankfurt a.M., Ger.), K.
Runge, Intl. J. Clim., 11(3), 237-250, Apr. 1991. Revisions of
an earlier multiple regression analysis include improved climatic data, the
addition of ENSO and improvement of volcanic forcing parameters, introduction of
a phase shift and inclusion of greenhouse gases other than CO2.
"Recent Trends in United States Precipitation," S.B. Idso, R.C.
Balling (Lab. Clim., Arizona State Univ., Tempe AZ 85287), Environ. Conserv.,
18(1), 71-73, Spring 1991.
Analysis of records from 934 U.S. stations shows that precipitation was
constant from 1901 to 1954, but increased notably afterwards; the authors
associate this increase with a coincident increase in SO2 emissions associated
with industrialization. They suggest that, similarly, biological processes could
be stimulated by increased CO2, and this hypothesis should be researched
Discussion on "Recent Trends in Precipitation in Eastern Canada,"
Atmos.-Ocean, 29(1), 175-178, Mar. 1991.
"Can a Trend Be Ascertained in the Temperature of the Troposphere at
Berlin?" W. Elling (M. Plank Inst. Aeronomie, D-3411 Lindau, Ger.), H.
Schwentek, Beitr. Phys. Atmos., 64(1), 65-71, Feb. 1991.
Analysis of daily radiosonde data for 1958 to 1986 shows no sign of a trend.
Due to scatter in the data, a significant trend can be determined at Berlin only
if the change in temperature of the entire troposphere exceeds 0.6 + or - 0.1 K
Guide to Publishers
Index of Abbreviations