February 28, 2007
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Global Climate Change Digest
A Guide to Information on Greenhouse Gases and Ozone Depletion
Published July 1988 through June 1999
FROM VOLUME 4, NUMBER 11, NOVEMBER 1991
"Atmospheric Methane: A Global Three-Dimensional Model Study,"
X.X. Tie (Scripps Inst. Oceanog., Univ. Calif., La Jolla CA 92093), F.N. Alyea
et al., J. Geophys. Res., 96(D9), 17,339-17,348, Sep. 20, 1991.
The model, which includes transports, chemical reactions and global methane
sources, simulates the observed latitudinal gradient, and suggests that rice
paddies in Southeast Asia and wetlands in the high latitudes of North America
are significant sources. It also simulates the observed positive vertical
gradient in the Southern Hemisphere troposphere, which apparently results from
"The Production of Atmospheric NOx and N2O from a Fertilized
Agricultural Soil," M.F. Shepherd (Ctr. Res. Earth Sci., York Univ., 4700
Keele St., N. York, Ont. M3J 1P3, Can.), S. Barzetti, D.R. Hastie, Atmos.
Environ., 25A(9), 1961-1969, 1991.
Enclosure studies on fertilized agricultural soil in southern Ontario found
N2O emissions ranging from 0 to 446 micrograms m-2 h-1. The flux increased
linearly with fertilizer application, with 5% of the fertilizer N converted to
N2O. Emission rates were studied as functions of soil parameters, but a model
could not be developed.
"An Automated Technique for the Measurement of Dissolved N2O in
Natural Waters," J.H. Butler (Clim. Lab., NOAA, 325 Broadway, Boulder CO
80303), J.W. Elkins, Marine Chem., 39, 47-61, Sep. 1991. The
technique allows sampling intervals as short as six minutes, and has been used
extensively in the Pacific and Indian Oceans and the Black Sea.
"Nitrogen Stable Isotope Ratio of Groundwater N2O," S. Ueda
(Dept. Environ. Sci., Tokyo Univ. Agric. Technol., 3-5-8 Saiwaicho, Fuchu-shi,
Tokyo 183, Japan) N. Ogura, E. Wada, Geophys. Res. Lett., 18(8),
1449-1452, Aug. 1991. Two years of observations suggest that groundwater N2O is
an insignificant source of atmospheric N2O.
Two articles from: J. Geophys. Res., 96(D7), July 20,
"Relationships between CH4 Emission, Biomass and CO2 Exchange in a
Subtropical Grassland," G.J. Whiting (NASA-Langley, MS-483, Hampton VA
23665), J.P. Chanton et al., 13,067-13,071. Methane flux was linearly correlated
with plant biomass at two Florida Everglades locations, and fit a single
regression line against net CO2 exchange even though one site was recently
burned. The data are the first to show a direct relationship between spatial
variability in plant biomass, net ecosystem production, and methane emission in
a natural wetland.
"Three-Dimensional Model Synthesis of the Global Methane Cycle,"
I. Fung (NASA-Goddard, 2880 Broadway, New York NY 10025), J. John et al.,
13,033-13,065. Sources and sinks of methane were determined in detail as input
for a transport-chemical model which successfully reproduces the meridional
gradient and seasonal variations of methane. The resulting budget comprises
annual destruction rates of 450 Tg by OH oxidation and 10 Tg by soil absorption,
and emissions of 80 Tg from fossil sources, 80 Tg from domestic animals, and 35
Tg from wetlands and tundra poleward of 50° N; emissions from landfills,
tropical swamps, rice fields, biomass burning and termites totaled 295 Tg.
"Methane in Flooded Soil Water and the Emission through Rice Plants
to the Atmosphere," S. Mariko (Nat. Inst. Environ. Studies, Tsukuba,
Ibaraki 305, Japan), Y. Harazono et al., Environ. Exper. Bot., 31(3),
343-350, July 1991.
Pot culture experiments explored the dependence of methane emission on
factors such as temperature, flooding and treatment with rice straw vs. straw
compost. The seasonal peak in methane flux from paddy fields resulted from a
combination of flooded soil and rice plant growth.
"Effects of Nitrogen Additions on Annual Nitrous Oxide Fluxes from
Temperate Forest Soils in the Northeastern United States," R.D. Bowden
(Dept. Environ. Sci., Allegheny College, Meadville PA 16335), J.M. Melillo, P.A.
Steudler, J. Geophys. Res., 96(D5), 9321-9328, May 20, 1991.
NO2 fluxes between aerobic soils and the atmosphere were measured each month
for two years in control and N-fertilized (NH4NO3) plots in a red pine
plantation and a mixed hardwood forest in Massachusetts to mimic long-term
chronic N deposition. Fertilization resulted in only small increases in N2O
effluxes even in the second year. Other results suggest that NH4 availability
for nitrification is limited by competition with plant uptake and microbial
immobilization and that this competition is not alleviated by two years of N
"A Comparison of Dynamic and Static Chambers for Methane Emission
Measurements from Subarctic Fens," T.R. Moore (Dept. Geog., McGill Univ.,
805 Sherbrooke St. W, Montréal, Qué. H3A 2K6, Can.), N.T. Roulet,
Atmos.-Ocean., 29(1), 102-109, Mar. 1991. Measurements at three
sites show that results from the two types of chambers are highly correlated,
and inexpensive, portable static chambers can be used for methane emission
measurements at a wide range of wetland sites.
"Fertilizer Effects on Dinitrogen, Nitrous Oxide and Methane
Emissions from Lowland Rice," C.W. Lindau (Lab. Wetland Soils, Louisiana
State Univ., Baton Rouge LA 70803), R.D. DeLaune et al., Soil Sci. Soc.
Amer. J., 54, 1789-1794, Nov.-Dec. 1990.
Emissions were measured up to 21 days after addition of three types of
fertilizer to a Louisiana flooded rice field: urea, (NH4)2SO4, and KNO3. They
were affected by rice plants and by type of N-fertilizer applied. N2O emissions
were low after fertilizer applications; peak CH4 emissions from urea-treated
plots were 75 g ha-1 d-1.
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