February 28, 2007
GCRIO Program Overview
Our extensive collection of documents.
Archives of the
Global Climate Change Digest
A Guide to Information on Greenhouse Gases and Ozone Depletion
Published July 1988 through June 1999
FROM VOLUME 4, NUMBER 11, NOVEMBER 1991
GENERAL INTEREST AND POLICY
The World Bank and the Environment--A Progress Report--Fiscal 1991,
140 pp., Oct. 1991. Available in English, French and Spanish from worldwide
distributors, or World Bank Book Store, 1818 H St. NW, Washington DC 20433
This second annual environment report gives an overview of the year's policy
and research in seven major themes, including energy and the environment and
global issues. It then describes operations in each of the Bank's four regions
as well as general issues relating to all regions, and has a separate chapter on
tropical forests. Discusses the Montreal Protocol and the emergence of the
Global Environment Facility. An annex describes selected projects with
environmental and energy efficiency components.
The Experience and Legacy of NAPAP--Report of the Oversight Review
Board of the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program, 40 pp., Apr.
1991. Available (no charge) from NAPAP Off. Director, 722 Jackson Pl. NW,
Washington DC 20503 (202-395-5771).
(See News, this Global Climate Change Digest issue--Nov. 1991.)
Concludes that on the whole NAPAP was a successful enterprise. However, the
assessment function and communication of research findings to the public were
not as successful as the research process. The following lessons apply to
programs at the interface between science and public policy: (1) match
institutional remedies to problems; (2) obtain and maintain political
commitment; (3) take steps to assure continuity; (4) configure organization and
authority to match responsibility; (5) give assessment primacy; (6) provide for
independent, external program oversight; (7) understand the role of science and
how to use it; (8) take special care with communication; (9) prepare early for
ending the program.
The following recent discussion papers are available from Resources for
the Future for a nominal fee (less than $10 each). Extensive summaries of the
first three are in the Fall issue of RFF Research Digest. Contact
Public. Off., RFF, 1616 P St., Washington DC 20036 (202-328-5009).
Prospects for International Agreement on CO2 Containment: A
Synopsis of Research Findings (ENR91-14), J. Darmstadter, Ed., $5. Gives
results of a recently concluded joint project with the Japan Institute of Energy
Economics, relating to factors determining the growth of CO2 emissions, costs of
mitigating emissions, factors complicating negotiations, and the issue of
fairness. Japan is emphasizing technological approaches to CO2 limitation, while
the U.S. is stressing research on science and economic impacts.
Who Bears the Burden of Energy Taxes? (QE91-12), D.E. DeWitt, H.
Dowlatabadi, R.J. Kopp. Finds that even a moderate tax of $25 per ton on the
carbon content of fossil fuels would impose a substantial burden on U.S.
households; the regional variation in burden could be up to 60%. Households
would conserve energy and alter the energy use mix significantly, but the
reductions in carbon emissions that would be achieved by such a tax are still
very uncertain and more research is needed. (A related article appears in the
Fall 1991 Resources, pp. 6-8.)
Implementing Environmental Costing in the Electric Utility
Industry (QE91-13), K. Palmer, H. Dowlatabadi. Uses a hypothetical model of
a mid-Atlantic utility to show how different methods of accounting for potential
environmental damage costs--from sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides and carbon
dioxide--affect technology choices, and what the costs are to society. The only
effective approach is to apply environmental costing to all
electricity-generating units, not just new ones. (A related article appears in
the Fall 1991 Resources, pp. 1-5.)
Economic Considerations in Supplying Earth Observation Data from Space
(ENR91-11), M.K. Macauley, M.A. Toman. Considerations of economy and risk favor
a small-scale, multiplatform approach to the Earth Observation System; suggests
ways the private sector can play an important role in data collection.
Toward a Worldwide System of Tradeable Forest Protection and Management
Obligations (ENR91-16), R.A. Sedjo, M.D. Bowes, $5.
Assessing the Impacts of Climate Change on Water Scarcity
(ENR91-12), K.D. Frederick, $5.
Environmental Externalities: An Overview of Theory and Practice
(EPRI CU/EN-7294), May 1991, 60 pp., $200 (EPRI nonmembers). Elec. Power Res.
Inst., Res. Rpt. Ctr., POB 50490, Palo Alto CA 94303 (415-965-4081).
Utilities and regulatory agencies are starting to consider the environmental
impacts that occur as an unintended by-product of electricity production and
use. This study presents analytical techniques and discusses the potential
planning implications of environmental externalities.
Developing a Strategy to Reduce CO2 Emissions--A Scoping Paper,
34 pp., Apr. 1991. Contact Min. Environ., POB 10362, Wellington, New Zealand
(tel: 04 734-090).
The New Zealand government aims to reduce CO2 emissions by 20% of 1990
levels by the year 2000. This paper, which sets out key issues and the initial
work program, is the basis for a scoping report to be presented to the Cabinet
and will assist departments with planning.
Global Climate Change, F. Reinhardt, 34 pp., 1991, $23.50. Publ.
Div., Harvard Bus. School, Soldier's Field Rd., Boston MA 02163 (617-495-6117).
A summary of global climate change science, impacts, costs, response
strategies and their economic implications, and politics. Includes brief
summaries for eight major nations. (See review in Global Environ. Change
Rep., p. 7, Nov. 1, 1991.)
Guide to Publishers
Index of Abbreviations