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Item #d91nov44

The World Bank and the Environment--A Progress Report--Fiscal 1991, 140 pp., Oct. 1991. Available in English, French and Spanish from worldwide distributors, or World Bank Book Store, 1818 H St. NW, Washington DC 20433 (202-473-2941); $8.95.

This second annual environment report gives an overview of the year's policy and research in seven major themes, including energy and the environment and global issues. It then describes operations in each of the Bank's four regions as well as general issues relating to all regions, and has a separate chapter on tropical forests. Discusses the Montreal Protocol and the emergence of the Global Environment Facility. An annex describes selected projects with environmental and energy efficiency components.

Item #d91nov45

The Experience and Legacy of NAPAP--Report of the Oversight Review Board of the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program, 40 pp., Apr. 1991. Available (no charge) from NAPAP Off. Director, 722 Jackson Pl. NW, Washington DC 20503 (202-395-5771).

(See News, this Global Climate Change Digest issue--Nov. 1991.) Concludes that on the whole NAPAP was a successful enterprise. However, the assessment function and communication of research findings to the public were not as successful as the research process. The following lessons apply to programs at the interface between science and public policy: (1) match institutional remedies to problems; (2) obtain and maintain political commitment; (3) take steps to assure continuity; (4) configure organization and authority to match responsibility; (5) give assessment primacy; (6) provide for independent, external program oversight; (7) understand the role of science and how to use it; (8) take special care with communication; (9) prepare early for ending the program.

Item #d91nov46

The following recent discussion papers are available from Resources for the Future for a nominal fee (less than $10 each). Extensive summaries of the first three are in the Fall issue of RFF Research Digest. Contact Public. Off., RFF, 1616 P St., Washington DC 20036 (202-328-5009).

Prospects for International Agreement on CO2 Containment: A Synopsis of Research Findings (ENR91-14), J. Darmstadter, Ed., $5. Gives results of a recently concluded joint project with the Japan Institute of Energy Economics, relating to factors determining the growth of CO2 emissions, costs of mitigating emissions, factors complicating negotiations, and the issue of fairness. Japan is emphasizing technological approaches to CO2 limitation, while the U.S. is stressing research on science and economic impacts.

Who Bears the Burden of Energy Taxes? (QE91-12), D.E. DeWitt, H. Dowlatabadi, R.J. Kopp. Finds that even a moderate tax of $25 per ton on the carbon content of fossil fuels would impose a substantial burden on U.S. households; the regional variation in burden could be up to 60%. Households would conserve energy and alter the energy use mix significantly, but the reductions in carbon emissions that would be achieved by such a tax are still very uncertain and more research is needed. (A related article appears in the Fall 1991 Resources, pp. 6-8.)

Implementing Environmental Costing in the Electric Utility Industry (QE91-13), K. Palmer, H. Dowlatabadi. Uses a hypothetical model of a mid-Atlantic utility to show how different methods of accounting for potential environmental damage costs--from sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides and carbon dioxide--affect technology choices, and what the costs are to society. The only effective approach is to apply environmental costing to all electricity-generating units, not just new ones. (A related article appears in the Fall 1991 Resources, pp. 1-5.)

Economic Considerations in Supplying Earth Observation Data from Space (ENR91-11), M.K. Macauley, M.A. Toman. Considerations of economy and risk favor a small-scale, multiplatform approach to the Earth Observation System; suggests ways the private sector can play an important role in data collection.

Toward a Worldwide System of Tradeable Forest Protection and Management Obligations (ENR91-16), R.A. Sedjo, M.D. Bowes, $5.

Assessing the Impacts of Climate Change on Water Scarcity (ENR91-12), K.D. Frederick, $5.

Item #d91nov47

Environmental Externalities: An Overview of Theory and Practice (EPRI CU/EN-7294), May 1991, 60 pp., $200 (EPRI nonmembers). Elec. Power Res. Inst., Res. Rpt. Ctr., POB 50490, Palo Alto CA 94303 (415-965-4081).

Utilities and regulatory agencies are starting to consider the environmental impacts that occur as an unintended by-product of electricity production and use. This study presents analytical techniques and discusses the potential planning implications of environmental externalities.

Item #d91nov48

Developing a Strategy to Reduce CO2 Emissions--A Scoping Paper, 34 pp., Apr. 1991. Contact Min. Environ., POB 10362, Wellington, New Zealand (tel: 04 734-090).

The New Zealand government aims to reduce CO2 emissions by 20% of 1990 levels by the year 2000. This paper, which sets out key issues and the initial work program, is the basis for a scoping report to be presented to the Cabinet and will assist departments with planning.

Item #d91nov49

Global Climate Change, F. Reinhardt, 34 pp., 1991, $23.50. Publ. Div., Harvard Bus. School, Soldier's Field Rd., Boston MA 02163 (617-495-6117).

A summary of global climate change science, impacts, costs, response strategies and their economic implications, and politics. Includes brief summaries for eight major nations. (See review in Global Environ. Change Rep., p. 7, Nov. 1, 1991.)

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