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DMS AND THE SULFUR CYCLE
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Global Climate Change DigestArchives of the
Global Climate Change Digest

A Guide to Information on Greenhouse Gases and Ozone Depletion
Published July 1988 through June 1999

FROM VOLUME 4, NUMBER 10, OCTOBER 1991

PROFESSIONAL PUBLICATIONS...
DMS AND THE SULFUR CYCLE


Item #d91oct17

"Dimethyl Sulfide and Cloud Condensation Nucleus Correlations in the Northeast Pacific Ocean," D.A. Hegg (Dept. Atmos. Sci., Univ. Washington, AK-40, Seattle WA 98195), R.J. Ferek et al., J. Geophys. Res., 96(D7), 13,189-13,191, July 20, 1991.

Regression analysis shows that measurements of CCN and DMS in the boundary layer over the northeastern Pacific Ocean are highly correlated. This correlation, and that between seasonal trends at northern and southern hemispheric remote marine sites, provide empirical support for the DMS-cloud-climate hypothesis.


Item #d91oct18

"Microbial Degradation of Methanesulphonic Acid: A Missing Link in the Biogeochemical Sulphur Cycle," S.C. Baker (Dept. Biol. Sci., Univ. Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL, UK), D.P. Kelly, J.C. Murrell, Nature, 350(6319), 627, Apr. 18, 1991. Describes terrestrial bacteria that grow on MSA, eventually causing the mineralization of MSA to CO2 and sulfate.


Item #d91oct19

"Distribution of Methanesulfonate, NSS Sulfate and Dimethylsulfide over the Atlantic and the North Sea," S. Bügermeister (Inst. Meteor., Univ. Frankfurt, Feldbergstr. 47, 6000 Frankfurt 1, Ger.), H.-W. Georgii, Atmos. Environ., 25A(3-4), 587-595, 1991. Aerosol MSA concentrations were, respectively, 1-20 and 5-100 ng S (MSA) m-3 over the Atlantic and North Sea; on average MSA and its precursor DMS were well correlated, with highest values in spring.


Item #d91oct20

"Impact of Oceanic Sources of Biogenic Sulphur on Sulphate Aerosol Concentrations at Mawson, Antarctica," J.M. Prospero (Univ. Miami, RSMAS/MAC, 4600 Rickenbacker Causeway, Miami FL 33149), D.L. Savoie et al., Nature, 350(6315), 221-223, Mar. 21, 1991. Extended measurements of non-seasalt SO42- and MSA show a strong seasonal cycle with a maximum in the austral summer, providing the first strong chemical evidence directly linking oceanic DMS with Antarctic non-seasalt SO42-.


Item #d91oct21

"Ice-Core Record of Oceanic Emissions of Dimethylsulphide during the Last Climate Cycle," M. Legrand (Lab. Glaciol., B.P. 96, 38402 St. Martin d'Hčres, Cedex, France), C. Feniet-Saigne et al., ibid., 350(6314), 144-146, Mar. 14, 1991. The glacial-interglacial variations observed in methanesulfonate and non-seasalt sulfate in the Vostok ice core confirm that the ocean-atmosphere sulfur cycle is extremely sensitive to climate change.


Item #d91oct22

"Methanesulfonic Acid in South Polar Snow Layers: A Record of Strong El Niņo," M. Legrand (addr. immed. above), C. Feniet-Saigne, Geophys. Res. Lett., 18(2), 187-190, Feb. 1991. Episodes of elevated MSA in snow layers correspond to major El Niņo-southern oscillation events over the last 60 years. The suggested connection between El Niņo and high Antarctic marine emissions is discussed in terms of atmospheric and oceanic circulations.


Item #d91oct23

"Coherence between Seasonal Cycles of Dimethyl Sulphide, Methanesulphonate and Sulphate in Marine Air," G.P. Ayers (Div. Atmos. Res., CSIRO, Pvt. Bag 1, Mordialloc 3195, Australia), J.P. Ivey, R.W. Gillett, Nature, 349(6308), 404-406, Jan. 31, 1991.

Presents 20 months of data from a clean marine site at 40° S, which confirm the connection between DMS and aerosol sulfur species that is central to the cloud-climate hypothesis of Charlson et al. The data also show a strong seasonal cycle, indicating that it should be possible to test the hypothesis by looking for large, natural, seasonal variations in cloud albedo.


Item #d91oct24

Two articles from: Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 4(4), Dec. 1990.

"Measurements of Dimethyl Sulfide Oxidation Products in the Summertime North Atlantic Marine Boundary Layer," A.A.P. Pszenny (NOAA/AOML/OCD, 4301 Rickenbacker Causeway, Miami FL 33149), G.R. Harvey et al., 367-379. The data are used to estimate that anthropogenic S sources may enhance marine biogenic S by an area-weighted factor of approximately 0.3 for Northern Hemisphere ocean areas, consistent with climate modeling studies.

"The Geochemical Cycling of Reactive Chlorine through the Marine Troposphere," W.C. Keene (Dept. Environ. Sci., Univ. Virginia, Charlottesville VA 22903), A.A.P. Pszenny et al., 407-430. Simulations using a zero-dimensional photochemical model suggest that oxidation by Cl- may be an important tropospheric sink for DMS and hydrocarbons.


Item #d91oct25

"Are There Interactions of Iodine and Sulfur Species in Marine Air Photochemistry," R.B. Chatfield (NCAR, POB 3000, Boulder CO 80307), P.J. Crutzen, J. Geophys. Res., 95(D13), 22,319-22,341, Dec. 20, 1990. Uses a 2-D photochemical model to investigate the possibility that portions of the global cycles of sulfur and iodine could be intertwined in reactions resulting from the emissions of DMS and methyl iodine.


Item #d91oct26

"Photooxidation of Dimethyl Sulfide and Dimethyl Disulfide. I: Mechanism Development," F. Yin (Dept. Chem. Eng., Calif. Inst. Technol., Pasadena CA 91109), D. Grosjean, J.H. Seinfeld, J. Atmos. Chem., 11(4), 309-364, Nov. 1990. "...II: Mechanism Evaluation," F. Yin, D. Grosjean et al., 365-399. Comprehensive mechanisms are developed based on fundamental considerations of all available kinetic and mechanistic information, and are confirmed through outdoor smog chamber tests. Critical uncertainties are identified.


Item #d91oct27

Two articles from: J. Geophys. Res., 95(D12), Nov. 20, 1990.

"Two Approaches to Determining the Sea-to-Air Flux of Dimethyl Sulfide: Satellite Ocean Color and a Photochemical Model with Atmospheric Measurements," A.M. Thompson (Lab. Atmos., NASA-Goddard, Greenbelt MD 20771), W.E. Esaias, R.L. Iverson, 20,551-20,558. The study was intended to develop approaches for using remotely sensed ocean color and trace gas data to improve knowledge of the oceanic sources and distributions of photoreactive sulfur gases. For some species (including DMS) surface sensing of sources is feasible, but only in regions and seasons where phytoplankton pigment is a significant marker. For other constituents (SO2, COS), direct atmospheric measurements are needed.

"On the Biogenic Origin of Dimethylsulfide: Relation between Chlorophyll, ATP, Organismic DMSP, Phytoplankton Species and DMS Distribution in Atlantic Surface Water and Atmosphere," S. Bügermeister (Inst. Meteor., Univ. Frankfurt, Feldbergstr. 47, 6000 Frankfurt 1, Ger.), R.L. Zimmermann et al., 20,607-20,615. Results suggest a mean flux of DMS from the Atlantic to the atmosphere of 4-4.65 nmol DMS m-2 min-1; DMS in seawater correlated well with DMSP and showed a similar trend to ATP, chlorophyll and some phytoplankton species.


Item #d91oct28

"Ocean-Atmosphere Interactions in the Global Biogeochemical Sulfur Cycle," M.O. Andreae (Dept. Biogeochem., M. Planck Inst. Chem., POB 3060, D-6500 Mainz, Ger.), Marine Chem., 30(1-3), 1-29, Aug. 1990. A review covering biological production and chemical and photochemical processes, and their possible climatic influence.

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