February 28, 2007
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A Guide to Information on Greenhouse Gases and Ozone Depletion
Published July 1988 through June 1999
FROM VOLUME 4, NUMBER 10, OCTOBER 1991
DMS AND THE SULFUR CYCLE
"Dimethyl Sulfide and Cloud Condensation Nucleus Correlations in the
Northeast Pacific Ocean," D.A. Hegg (Dept. Atmos. Sci., Univ. Washington,
AK-40, Seattle WA 98195), R.J. Ferek et al., J. Geophys. Res., 96(D7),
13,189-13,191, July 20, 1991.
Regression analysis shows that measurements of CCN and DMS in the boundary
layer over the northeastern Pacific Ocean are highly correlated. This
correlation, and that between seasonal trends at northern and southern
hemispheric remote marine sites, provide empirical support for the
"Microbial Degradation of Methanesulphonic Acid: A Missing Link in
the Biogeochemical Sulphur Cycle," S.C. Baker (Dept. Biol. Sci., Univ.
Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL, UK), D.P. Kelly, J.C. Murrell, Nature, 350(6319),
627, Apr. 18, 1991. Describes terrestrial bacteria that grow on MSA, eventually
causing the mineralization of MSA to CO2 and sulfate.
"Distribution of Methanesulfonate, NSS Sulfate and Dimethylsulfide
over the Atlantic and the North Sea," S. Bügermeister (Inst. Meteor.,
Univ. Frankfurt, Feldbergstr. 47, 6000 Frankfurt 1, Ger.), H.-W. Georgii, Atmos.
Environ., 25A(3-4), 587-595, 1991. Aerosol MSA concentrations were,
respectively, 1-20 and 5-100 ng S (MSA) m-3 over the Atlantic and North Sea; on
average MSA and its precursor DMS were well correlated, with highest values in
"Impact of Oceanic Sources of Biogenic Sulphur on Sulphate Aerosol
Concentrations at Mawson, Antarctica," J.M. Prospero (Univ. Miami,
RSMAS/MAC, 4600 Rickenbacker Causeway, Miami FL 33149), D.L. Savoie et al., Nature,
350(6315), 221-223, Mar. 21, 1991. Extended measurements of non-seasalt
SO42- and MSA show a strong seasonal cycle with a maximum in the austral summer,
providing the first strong chemical evidence directly linking oceanic DMS with
Antarctic non-seasalt SO42-.
"Ice-Core Record of Oceanic Emissions of Dimethylsulphide during the
Last Climate Cycle," M. Legrand (Lab. Glaciol., B.P. 96, 38402 St. Martin
d'Hères, Cedex, France), C. Feniet-Saigne et al., ibid., 350(6314),
144-146, Mar. 14, 1991. The glacial-interglacial variations observed in
methanesulfonate and non-seasalt sulfate in the Vostok ice core confirm that the
ocean-atmosphere sulfur cycle is extremely sensitive to climate change.
"Methanesulfonic Acid in South Polar Snow Layers: A Record of Strong
El Niño," M. Legrand (addr. immed. above), C. Feniet-Saigne, Geophys.
Res. Lett., 18(2), 187-190, Feb. 1991. Episodes of elevated MSA in
snow layers correspond to major El Niño-southern oscillation events over
the last 60 years. The suggested connection between El Niño and high
Antarctic marine emissions is discussed in terms of atmospheric and oceanic
"Coherence between Seasonal Cycles of Dimethyl Sulphide,
Methanesulphonate and Sulphate in Marine Air," G.P. Ayers (Div. Atmos.
Res., CSIRO, Pvt. Bag 1, Mordialloc 3195, Australia), J.P. Ivey, R.W. Gillett,
Nature, 349(6308), 404-406, Jan. 31, 1991.
Presents 20 months of data from a clean marine site at 40° S, which
confirm the connection between DMS and aerosol sulfur species that is central to
the cloud-climate hypothesis of Charlson et al. The data also show a strong
seasonal cycle, indicating that it should be possible to test the hypothesis by
looking for large, natural, seasonal variations in cloud albedo.
Two articles from: Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 4(4), Dec.
"Measurements of Dimethyl Sulfide Oxidation Products in the Summertime
North Atlantic Marine Boundary Layer," A.A.P. Pszenny (NOAA/AOML/OCD, 4301
Rickenbacker Causeway, Miami FL 33149), G.R. Harvey et al., 367-379. The data
are used to estimate that anthropogenic S sources may enhance marine biogenic S
by an area-weighted factor of approximately 0.3 for Northern Hemisphere ocean
areas, consistent with climate modeling studies.
"The Geochemical Cycling of Reactive Chlorine through the Marine
Troposphere," W.C. Keene (Dept. Environ. Sci., Univ. Virginia,
Charlottesville VA 22903), A.A.P. Pszenny et al., 407-430. Simulations using a
zero-dimensional photochemical model suggest that oxidation by Cl- may be an
important tropospheric sink for DMS and hydrocarbons.
"Are There Interactions of Iodine and Sulfur Species in Marine Air
Photochemistry," R.B. Chatfield (NCAR, POB 3000, Boulder CO 80307), P.J.
Crutzen, J. Geophys. Res., 95(D13), 22,319-22,341, Dec. 20,
1990. Uses a 2-D photochemical model to investigate the possibility that
portions of the global cycles of sulfur and iodine could be intertwined in
reactions resulting from the emissions of DMS and methyl iodine.
"Photooxidation of Dimethyl Sulfide and Dimethyl Disulfide. I:
Mechanism Development," F. Yin (Dept. Chem. Eng., Calif. Inst. Technol.,
Pasadena CA 91109), D. Grosjean, J.H. Seinfeld, J. Atmos. Chem., 11(4),
309-364, Nov. 1990. "...II: Mechanism Evaluation," F. Yin, D. Grosjean
et al., 365-399. Comprehensive mechanisms are developed based on fundamental
considerations of all available kinetic and mechanistic information, and are
confirmed through outdoor smog chamber tests. Critical uncertainties are
Two articles from: J. Geophys. Res., 95(D12), Nov. 20,
"Two Approaches to Determining the Sea-to-Air Flux of Dimethyl Sulfide:
Satellite Ocean Color and a Photochemical Model with Atmospheric Measurements,"
A.M. Thompson (Lab. Atmos., NASA-Goddard, Greenbelt MD 20771), W.E. Esaias, R.L.
Iverson, 20,551-20,558. The study was intended to develop approaches for using
remotely sensed ocean color and trace gas data to improve knowledge of the
oceanic sources and distributions of photoreactive sulfur gases. For some
species (including DMS) surface sensing of sources is feasible, but only in
regions and seasons where phytoplankton pigment is a significant marker. For
other constituents (SO2, COS), direct atmospheric measurements are needed.
"On the Biogenic Origin of Dimethylsulfide: Relation between
Chlorophyll, ATP, Organismic DMSP, Phytoplankton Species and DMS Distribution in
Atlantic Surface Water and Atmosphere," S. Bügermeister (Inst.
Meteor., Univ. Frankfurt, Feldbergstr. 47, 6000 Frankfurt 1, Ger.), R.L.
Zimmermann et al., 20,607-20,615. Results suggest a mean flux of DMS from the
Atlantic to the atmosphere of 4-4.65 nmol DMS m-2 min-1; DMS in seawater
correlated well with DMSP and showed a similar trend to ATP, chlorophyll and
some phytoplankton species.
"Ocean-Atmosphere Interactions in the Global Biogeochemical Sulfur
Cycle," M.O. Andreae (Dept. Biogeochem., M. Planck Inst. Chem., POB 3060,
D-6500 Mainz, Ger.), Marine Chem., 30(1-3), 1-29, Aug. 1990. A
review covering biological production and chemical and photochemical processes,
and their possible climatic influence.
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