February 28, 2007
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Global Climate Change Digest
A Guide to Information on Greenhouse Gases and Ozone Depletion
Published July 1988 through June 1999
FROM VOLUME 4, NUMBER 9, SEPTEMBER 1991
GENERAL INTEREST AND POLICY
"Limits of Market-Based Strategies for Slowing Global Warming: The
Case of Tradeable Permits," D.G. Victor (Dept. Polit. Sci., Mass. Inst.
Technol., Cambridge MA 02139), Policy Sci., 24, 199-222, 1991.
Considers a global system of tradeable permits for the sources and sinks of
the major greenhouse gases, finding that not enough is currently known about
these gases to accurately monitor such a system, with the possible exception of
CO2. The administrative costs may be much larger than the benefits. One
alternative is a more limited system that includes only CO2; this finding
applies to other greenhouse control mechanisms as well.
"A Review of the Role of Temperate Forests in the Global CO2 Balance,"
R.C. Musselman (Rocky Mtn. Exper. Sta., Forest Serv., 240 W. Prospect, Ft.
Collins CO 80526), D.G. Fox, J. Air Waste Mgmt. Assoc., 41(6),
798-807, June 1991.
Although the role of temperate forests is difficult to determine, there is
little doubt that increases in atmospheric CO2 and global warming would have
major effects on these ecosystems. Indirect effects of changes in global carbon
balance on regional climate and on microenvironmental conditions, particularly
temperature and moisture, may be more important than direct effects of increased
CO2 on vegetation. Conditions favorable to forest growth and development may
exist in the northern latitudes, while southern latitude forests may undergo
drought stress. Forest managers should be aware of the global as well as local
impact their management decisions will have on the atmospheric carbon balance of
the ecosystems they oversee.
"Chlorinated Solvents: Will the Alternative Be Safer?" K. Wolf
(Inst. Res. & Tech. Assistance, 1429 S. Bundy Dr., Los Angeles CA 90025), A.
Yazdani, P. Yates, J. Air Waste Mgmt. Assoc., 41(8), 1055-1061,
Two of the five solvents considered (methyl chloroform and CFC-113)
contribute to ozone depletion. The alternative compounds in some cases pose
health and environmental problems that are likely to be as serious; in other
cases, the alternatives have not been examined for their health and
environmental effects. This case study demonstrates that regulations on
chlorinated solvents and their potential alternatives are inconsistent and
The Ecologist, 21(4), Aug. 1991.
"Discord in the Greenhouse: How WRI is Attempting to Shift the Blame
for Global Warming," P. McCully (The Ecologist, Corner House,
Station Rd., Sturminster, Newton, Dorset DT10 1BB, UK), 157-165. The latest
annual report from the influential World Resources Institute surprised many
environmentalists by claiming that industrialized and non-industrialized
countries share equal responsibility for global emissions of greenhouse gases.
However, WRI has used highly questionable estimates for the releases of
greenhouse gases from developing countries and their methodology contains some
very dubious science. WRI's claim that the index is especially suitable for
diplomatic purposes is specious and should be rejected.
"Ecological Taxes, Energy Policy and Greenhouse Gas Reductions: A
German Perspective," R. Loske (Min. Economics, Small Bus. & Technol.,
State of Nordrhein-Westfalen, POB 1144, 4000 Düsseldorf 1, Ger.), 173-176.
The main political parties in Germany agree that energy-related greenhouse-gas
emissions should be reduced through taxes, and the ruling coalition favors a
charge on carbon dioxide emissions. However, a comprehensive energy tax is more
desirable as it would take account of the wider nonclimatic impacts of energy
use, would encourage energy saving rather than source substitution, and would
not favor nuclear power.
Special Issue: "Operational Satellites: Sentinels for the
Monitoring of Climate and Global Change," G. Ohring, E.P. McClain, J.O.
Ellis, Eds., Global Planet. Change, 4(1-3), July 1991.
Constitutes proceedings of the OPSAT '90 conference (Washington, D.C., Oct.
1990), sponsored by NOAA. Fifty papers are included in sections labeled
Atmospheric Variables, Surface Variables, Calibration of Operational Satellite
Instruments, Availability and Accessibility of Operational Satellite Data, and
Future Satellite Systems: Plans of the Space Agencies.
Special Issue: "Symposium on Global Climatic Effects of
Aerosols," Atmos. Environ., 25A(11), 1991. (Pergamon Press,
395 Saw Mill River Rd., Elmsford NY 10523; Headington Hill Hall, Oxford OX3 0BW,
Contains 24 papers from the symposium sponsored by the American Association
of Aerosol Research (Oct. 1989, Reno, Nev.). About half the papers concern smoke
aerosols such as may result from nuclear war. Many of the rest relate to
aerosols as cloud condensation nuclei, and the relative contributions of natural
and anthropogenic sources of sulfur compounds. The third topic is the role of
aerosols in stratospheric ozone depletion. Several review papers are included.
Intl. Environ. Affairs, 3(2), Spr. 1991.
"A Sound Footing for Controlling Climate Change," R.J. Swart
(RIVM, Bilthoven, Neth.), M.J.M. Hootsmans, 124-136. Explores the use of
long-term environmental goals to specify short-term emissions control policies.
Long-term goals are proposed: allowing natural ecosystems to adapt to climate
change, securing world food supply, and establishing sustainable economic
development. Based on the adaptive capabilities of terrestrial and marine
ecosystems, quantitative targets are derived for global mean sea level rise
(below 0.1° C per decade) and temperature change (less than 1° C
above pre-industrial levels). These can be translated into short-term emissions
"The Global Environment Facility," E. Helland-Hansen (U.N.
Development Prog.), 137-144. Discusses UNDP's operational understanding of the
GEF, established November 1990 to provide financial resources to developing
"The Global Consequences of Increasing Tropospheric Ozone
Concentrations," J. Fishman (MS-401A, NASA-Langley, Hampton VA 23665), Chemosphere,
22(7), 685-695, 1991. Measurements show that tropospheric ozone is
increasing at 1-2% per year; the amount of atmospheric warming it causes should
be comparable to or even exceed that from the increase in CO2.
Environment, 33(5), June 1991.
"The Environmental Consequences of the Gulf War," F. Warner, 7-9;
25-26. An assessment of the Kuwait oil fires based on the SCOPE study of the
environmental impacts of nuclear war finds that climatic effects are likely to
"The Use of Analogies in Forecasting Ecological and Societal Responses
to Global Warming," M.H. Glantz (NCAR, POB 3000, Boulder CO 80307), 10-13;
27-33. Until computer models can forecast the regional impacts of global climate
change, analogies will be useful for understanding responses. But they must be
used with care lest they be misapplied to justify a particular policy agenda.
"Some Challenges in the Use of General Circulation Model Output in
Climate-Impact Studies," R.M. Cushman (Oak Ridge Nat. Lab., Oak Ridge TN
37831), The Environ. Professional, 13, 16-24, 1991.
Although GCMs are excellent research tools for studying climate, use of
their output in regional climate impact studies stretches the limits of their
capabilities, and reliable climate impact predictions are not currently
possible. Some challenges in using GCM output are discussed and examples given
of how these problems have been dealt with (e.g., relating model geography to
actual geography, or deriving projected future climate change from the
difference between the control and perturbed climate model simulations).
Special Issue: "The Politics of the Global Environment,"
J. Intl. Affairs, 44(2), Winter 1991. Single issues ($7, outside
N. America add $4 postage) are available from JIA, Box 4, Intl. Affairs Bldg.,
Columbia Univ., New York NY 10027. Following are seven of the nine papers by
scholars and policy practitioners which explore the ability of existing
political systems and institutions to cope with exponentially growing problems.
"ECO '92: Critical Challenges and Global Solutions," M.F. Strong
(under secretary general of the 1992 U.N. Conference on Environment and
Development), 287-300. Conflicts between the developing and developed worlds are
a problem for the 1992 U.N. conference; nongovernmental groups must influence
states in the direction of sustainable policies.
"Political Mobilization, Agenda Building and International
Environmental Policy," S. Kamieniecki (Dept. Political Sci., Univ. Southern
California), 339-358. Analyzes the political processes by which environmental
issues reach decision makers in the industrialized nations and the Third World.
"Key Environmental Issues for Developing Countries," G.S.
Hartshorn (V. Pres., Conservation Sci., World Wildlife Fund), 393-402. The
issues are species extinction, global climate change, sustainable development
and population growth.
"Development for People and the Environment," R. Sandbrook (Exec.
Dir., Intl. Inst. Environ. Devel., London, U.K.), 403-420. Demonstrates that
economic and environmental policies toward the developing world have usually
been made in isolation, with environmental goals inevitably losing out.
"Sustainability: A Task for the North," E.U. von Weizsäker
(Dir., Inst. European Environ. Policy, Bonn, Ger.), 421-432. The greatest
contribution that the industrialized world can make to global environmental
policy is the radical transformation of advanced economies toward
sustainability, which would be examples to the developing world and lead to
quantum jumps in social welfare in the North.
"Multilateral Cooperation and Global Change," P.S. Thacher (World
Resour. Inst., Washington, D.C.), 433-456. Despite underfunding and often
paralyzing political problems, the U.N. remains in a unique position to confront
the challenge of safeguarding the Earth's future.
"The Emergence of International Environmental Law," O. Schachter
(Professor Emeritus, Intl. Law, Columbia Univ., New York, N.Y.), 457-494. In a
decentralized system international law develops largely out of state practice
and international treaties; therefore, it cannot solve the most difficult
international environmental issues such as global warming, though it has a
certain contribution to make.
Special Issue: "Global Change," GeoJournal, 20(2),
Feb. 1990. Published by Kluwer. A collection of ten papers by U.S. and Soviet
authors, constituting the first project of the new Study Group on Historical
Geography of Global Environmental Change of the International Geophysical Union.
Emphasizes historical changes in human impact, landscape evolution, and
alteration of biospheric processes.
"Global Change: Some Concepts and Problems of Geographical Research,"
(a few results of the Soviet-American Project), J.R. Mather (Dept. Geog., Univ.
Delaware, Newark DE 19716), 85-94.
"The 'Earth Transformed' Program," W.B. Meyer (Grad. Sch. Geog.,
Clark Univ., Worcester MA 01610), B.L. Turner II, 95-99.
"Problems and Approaches in Historical Geography of Global
Environmental Change," V.V. Annenkov (Inst. Geog., USSR Acad. Sci.,
Staromonetny 29, Moscow 109017, USSR), 101-106.
"Experiences and Perspective in Compiling Long-Term Remote Sensing Data
Sets on Landscapes and Biospheric Processes," S.N. Goward (Dept. Geog.,
Univ. Maryland, College Pk. MD 20742), 107-114.
"Change in the Anthropogenic Geochemical Impact on the Biosphere,"
N.F. Glazovsky (Inst. Geog., USSR Acad. Sci., addr. above), 115-119.
"Evidence of Recent Changes in Global Snow and Ice Cover," R.G.
Barry (CIRES, Univ. Colorado, Boulder CO 80309), 121-127.
"Historical Changes of the Regional and Global Hydrological Cycles,"
R.K. Klige (Inst. Water Problems, USSR Acad. Sci., Sadovaya-Chernogryazskaya
13/3, Moscow 103064, USSR), 129-136.
"Some Long-Term and Short-Term Geographical Tasks in the `Global
Change' Programme," A.V. Drozdov, V.M. Kotlyakov (Inst. Geog., USSR Acad.
Sci., addr. above), 137-141.
"The Human Ecology of Global Change: Unresolved Questions," W.C.
Clark (JFK Sch. Govt., Harvard Univ., 79 Kennedy St., Cambridge MA 02138),
"New Global Environment Programmes and Sustainable Development--A
Geographical Perspective," W. Manshard (Inst. Kulturgeog., Univ. Freiburg,
Werderring 4, 7800 Freiburg i. Br., Ger.), 151-156.
Guide to Publishers
Index of Abbreviations