February 28, 2007
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FROM VOLUME 4, NUMBER 9, SEPTEMBER 1991
EARTH SYSTEM SCIENCE
"Examining Several Southern Ocean Data Sets," C.R. McClain (Code
971, NASA-Goddard, Greenbelt MD 20771), C.J. Koblinsky et al., Eos, 72(33),
345; 351, Aug. 13, 1991. Describes the merging of several data sets; simple
analyses are presented as examples of how a variety of data can be combined and
used in interdisciplinary research.
"Current and Future Ocean-Observing Systems," J.K. Lewis (Sci.
Applic. Intl., 207 S. Seashore Ave., Long Beach MS 39560), R.M. Passi, Eos,
72(31), 329; 333-334, July 30, 1991. Presents conclusions and
recommendations relating to observing system simulation experiments for
numerical models of the ocean.
Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 72(7), July 1991.
"Legacy of the Seasat Mission for Studies of the Atmosphere and
Air-Sea-Ice Interactions," K.B. Katsaros (Dept. Atmos. Sci., AK-40, Univ.
Washington, Seattle WA 98195), R.A. Brown, 967-981. Reviews results from the
polar-orbiting Seasat satellite, and discusses lessons that can be applied to
EOS observations over the next decade, such as the value of integrated,
overlapping sampling by several instruments.
"A Storm Climatology Database with Applications in Regional and Global
Change Studies," R.C. Daniels (Environ. Sci. Div., Oak Ridge Nat. Lab., Oak
Ridge TN 37831), K.R. Birdwell, 1005-1007. Describes a new digital
climatological data base.
"Role of Eddy Pumping in Enhancing Primary Production in the Ocean,"
P.G. Falkowski (Brookhaven Nat. Lab, Upton NY 11973), D. Ziemann et al., Nature,
352(6330), 55-58, July 4, 1991.
The enhancement of production by a cyclonic eddy in the subtropical Pacific
is examined with instrumentation that overcomes the sampling problem. Eddy
pumping markedly stimulates primary production, but results suggest that eddy
pumping enhances primary production by only about 20%.
"Rapid Transitions of the Ocean's Deep Circulation Induced by Changes
in Surface Water Fluxes," T.F. Stocker (Lamont-Doherty Geolog. Observ.,
Columbia Univ., Palisades NY 10964), D.G. Wright, Nature, 351(6329),
729-732, June 27, 1991.
An idealized model shows that a small decrease in the atmospheric flux of
fresh water from the Atlantic to the Pacific could force the thermohaline
circulation to switch between two stable modes, a result consistent with
reconstructions of conditions in the Atlantic Ocean during the last glacial
period obtained from deep-sea cores.
"Spaceborne Observation of Columnar Water Vapor: SSMI Observations
and Algorithm," S.A. Tjemkes (Dept. Atmos. Sci., Colorado State Univ., Ft.
Collins CO 80523), G.L. Stephens, D.L. Jackson, J. Geophys. Res., 96(D6),
10,941-10,954, June 20, 1991. Describes a new method for the retrieval of
columnar water vapor in the moist atmosphere and compares results with
"The Mid-Cretaceous Super Plume, Carbon Dioxide, and Global Warming,"
K. Caldeira (Dept. Geosci., Pennsylvania State Univ., Univ. Pk. PA 16802), M.R.
Rampino, Geophys. Res. Lett., 18(6), 987-990, June 1991.
Develops a carbonate-silicate model to quantify the possible climatic effects of
CO2 releases associated with a super plume, which has been suggested as a
principal cause of mid-Cretaceous global warming.
"Is the Greenhouse Gas-Climate Signal Hiding in the Deep Ocean?"
(editorial), Clim. Change, 18(4), iii-vi, June 1991. Explains
the likelihood that the signal is concealed in ocean intermediate waters, having
reached there by heat transfer from the surface layers, and discusses the data
needed to test this hypothesis.
Special Issue: "Remote Sensing Applications in Marine and
Coastal Research," GeoJournal, 24(1), May 1991. Contains 13
papers on a variety of topics, including remote sensing of substances in water
and the role of remote sensing in international programs of ocean research and
"Hydrologic Science: A Distinct Geoscience," P.S. Eagleson
(Dept. Civil Eng., Mass. Inst. Technol., Cambridge MA 02139), Rev. Geophys.,
92(2), 237-248, May 1991.
Because of the multidisciplinary nature of hydrologic science, an
infrastructure has not developed and a coherent understanding of water's role in
the planetary-scale behavior of the Earth system is missing. Arguments
supporting these points, along with recommended scientific priorities are
summarized as proposed by the National Research Committee on Opportunities in
the Hydrologic Sciences.
"Satellite-Image-Derived Velocity Field of an Antarctic Ice Stream,"
R.A. Bindschadler (NASA-Goddard, Code 971, Greenbelt MD 20771), T.A. Scambos,
Science, 252(5003), 242-246, Apr. 12, 1991.
The surface velocity of a rapidly moving ice stream has been determined to
high accuracy and spatial density with sequential satellite imagery. Results
negate the concept of plug flow and call into question earlier mass-balance
calculations for this and other ice streams where sparse velocity data were
"Warming in the Arctic," D. Quadfasel (Inst. Meeresrkunde, 2
Hamburg 54, Ger.), A. Sy et al., Nature, 350(6317), 385, Apr. 4,
1991. Observations of Arctic sea ice fluctuations underscore the need to
carefully monitor heat fluctuations in this region because of its vulnerability
to global climate changes.
"Marine Aerosols: A Review," J.W. Fitzgerald (Atmos. Phys.
Branch, Naval Res. Lab., Washington DC 20375), Atmos. Environ., 25A(3-4),
Presents an up-to-date description of knowledge of the physico-chemical
properties of aerosols in clean marine air, including the emission of
dimethylsulfide by the ocean and its possible effect on cloud condensation
nuclei concentrations, cloud albedo and climate.
"Using Secondary Data Sources," N.B. Guttman (Nat. Clim. Data
Ctr., Asheville NC 28801), Clim. Change, 18(1), 95-105, Jan.
Presents guidelines for scrutinizing data compiled by someone other than the
researcher. Applications of the principles include an analysis of some
statistical considerations of the adjustment procedure used in developing a new
climatic data set that was compiled for detecting and monitoring climatic
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