February 28, 2007
GCRIO Program Overview
Our extensive collection of documents.
Archives of the
Global Climate Change Digest
A Guide to Information on Greenhouse Gases and Ozone Depletion
Published July 1988 through June 1999
FROM VOLUME 5, NUMBER 4, APRIL 1992
GENERAL INTEREST AND POLICY
Special Issue: "Global Change, Part II," Marine
Technol. Soc. J., 25(4), Winter 1991-92. (For Part I see GLOBAL
CLIMATE CHANGE DIGEST, Prof. Pubs./Gen. Interest, Jan. 1992.) In addition to
the following articles dealing with the human dimensions of cause or effects,
there are shorter contributions relating to the role of the oceans in climate,
deep ocean water, carbon fluxes in the upper ocean, and an experimental approach
for CO2 disposal in the deep ocean. Contact Marine Technol. Soc., 1828 L St. NW,
S. 906, Washington DC 20036 (202-775-5966) for single issues ($16, each part).
"Human Dimensions of Global Change," L.C. Hanson (Grad. School
Oceanog., Univ. Rhode Island), Guest Ed., 3-6. Discusses issues related to
population, tropical deforestation, technology and education.
"Biological Diversity and Neptune's Realm," T.E. Lovejoy
(Smithsonian Inst., Washington, D.C.), R.H. Dwight, 7-12. Preventive action is
needed to restrict the forcing mechanisms for climate change resulting from
altered atmospheric composition.
"Sea Level As an Indicator of Climate and Global Change," B.B.
Parker (Global Sea Level Prog., NOAA, Rockville, Md.), 13-24. Discusses the
difficulties in predicting future global sea level rise, and determining whether
the apparent recent increase can be attributed to greenhouse gases. Concludes
that we really do not know how much sea level will rise over the next century.
"Energy and the Greenhouse Problem," I.M. Mintzer (Stockholm
Environ. Inst., Washington D.C.), 25-29. To reduce the risks of rapid climate
change while preserving the prospects for economic development, we must increase
the efficiency of energy use and develop cleaner, safer and less
carbon-intensive energy supplies.
"Agriculture, Forestry, and Food Security in Relation to Global Change,"
G.R. Evans (Off. Asst. Secy. Sci. & Educ., USDA, Washington, D.C.), 30-37.
The world should first look to securing its capability to supply food, fiber and
forest products; it can then focus on energy, industry and transportation.
However, the latter concerns have been thrust into the spotlight so far.
"Human Health Effects and Global Climate Change," J.R. Fouts (Nat.
Inst. Environ. Health Sci., Res. Triangle Pk., N.C.), W.T. Piver, 38-44.
"Recent Developments in Oceanic Farming of Marine Macroalgae,"
W.J. North (Keck Eng. Labs., California Inst. Technol., Pasadena, Calif.),
45-54. Oceanic farms for either fuel production or CO2 regulation would
necessitate very large growing areas that would exceed space available in
coastal waters, but they could easily be accommodated in the world's oceans.
"Ecology and World Security," N. Brown (Intl. Security
Affairs, Univ. Birmingham, U.K.), The World Today, 48(3), 51-54,
Mar. 1992. (Roy. Inst. Intl. Affairs, Chatham House, 10 St. James's Sq., London
SW1Y 4LE, UK)
Discusses the extent to which strategic security has been or may be
considered by the United States and other countries in responding to possible
climatic change. For instance, the IPCC predicts that increased biomass
potential in northern Europe and decreased potential in southern Europe is
possible, which would have an adverse effect on the development of the European
Community. That several prominent figures of this century have been actively
involved in both international security and environmental protection is
encouraging, and suggests that a synthesis between the two streams of thought
can be achieved.
"The U.S. Government Response to Global Change: Analysis and
Appraisal," R.G. Fleagle (Dept. Atmos. Sci., AK-40, Univ. Washington,
Seattle WA 98195), Clim. Change, 20(1), 57-81, Jan. 1992.
This lengthy analysis considers global warming, stratospheric ozone
depletion, and acid precipitation. In the last decade, initiative on these
issues has passed from the U.S. to other nations, and U.S. responses have been
tentative and temporizing, having emanated from a structure devised before there
was general appreciation that national security and welfare is likely to depend
on how well we cope with environmental problems of global scale. The piecemeal
approach being taken by the Executive Branch, Congress, and on the international
level is unlikely to be adequate.
Needed are a strong science base at the national and international levels,
and better mechanisms of interagency collaboration. In view of uncertainties,
actions to mitigate the effects of global change (such as reducing emissions,
and encouraging reforestation) should result in enlarged options, even if change
does not occur in the manner predicted. Consideration of alternatives and
international negotiations must be linked in a consistent manner to scientific
"The Role of the University in Interdisciplinary Global Change
Research: Structural Constraints and the Potential for Change--An Editorial,"
S.H. Schneider, (NCAR, POB 3000, Boulder CO 80307), ibid., vii-x.
Efforts to organize campuses to foster global change teaching and research
are critical and overdue. Proposes the creation of global change institutes at
universities, and describes several important functions they would serve.
"Global Climate Change and Human Health," G. Bentham (CSERGE,
Univ. E. Anglia, Norwich NR4 7TJ, UK), GeoJournal, 26(1), 7-12,
Human health impacts of predicted global warming are likely to be most
obvious in the Third World, where some areas can expect increased frequency of
floods and storms, changes in the availability of food and high quality water
supplies, and climate-related changes in the ecology of insect vectors for
diseases such as malaria. In developed countries, deaths from circulatory
diseases may increase, although warmer winters may cause lower mortality.
Effects of greater photochemical pollution and increased exposure to ultraviolet
radiation are also discussed.
"Halocarbons and Global Warming," C. Kroeze (Dept. Environ.
Sci., Univ. Amsterdam, Nieuwe Prinsengracht, 130 1018 VZ, Amsterdam, Neth.), L.
Reijnders, Sci. Tot. Environ., 111(1), 1-24, Jan. 1, 1992.
Uses a zero-dimensional model to calculate temperature forcing by
halocarbons between 1985 and 2100 assuming different production scenarios for
CFCs, H(C)FCs, CH3CCl3 and CCl4. Assuming strong restriction of CFCs, the
particular choice of H(C)FCs and whether their applications are restricted are
the most important factors determining the impact of halocarbons on future
"The Global Research Agenda: A South-North Perspective," Interdisciplinary
Sci. Rev., 16(4), 337-344, Dec. 1991.
An analysis of the complex environmental and social problems of the South
and North by the International Development Research Centre (IDRC), which for 20
years has encouraged cooperation among researchers all over the world. It is
useless for scientists from the northern industrial countries to set up
ultramodern laboratories in the southern developing countries for the pursuit of
pure science; researchers must cooperate on problems experienced by both the
developed and developing countries.
"The Global Consequences of Increasing Tropospheric Ozone
Concentrations," J. Fishman (Atmos. Sci. Div., M-S 401A, NASA-Langley,
Hampton VA 23665), Chemosphere, 22(7), 685-695, 1991.
Analysis of long-term records suggests that tropospheric ozone is increasing
at a rate of 1-2% per year. The corresponding amount of global warming is
comparable to, and possibly exceeds, that due to carbon dioxide. However, unlike
other climatically important trace gases, tropospheric ozone is toxic and can
cause direct environmental damage and impair human health.
"The Legal Control of Chlorofluorocarbon and Halon Substances in
Hong Kong," M.J. Downey (Dept. Business, Hong Kong Polytech., Kowloon, Hong
Kong), Environ. Monitor. Assess., 19(1-3), 183-191, Oct.-Dec.
1991. Explains regulations resulting from the Montreal Protocol and their major
implications in light of the circumstances of Hong Kong. For instance, almost
100% of Hong Kong's re-exports of CFC and halon substances are to countries that
have not signed the Protocol.
Special Issue: "Sustainable Policies and Making Them Work,"
G. McDonell (Sch. Sci. Studies, Univ. New South Wales, POB 1, Kensington, NSW
2033, Australia), R. Harding, Eds., Sci. Total Environ., 108(1-2),
Oct. 1991. Contains 15 papers and a summary from a conference held in Sydney
(Nov. 1989) dealing with all aspects of the topic--policy, law, impact
assessment and monitoring.
Guide to Publishers
Index of Abbreviations