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Global Climate Change Digest

A Guide to Information on Greenhouse Gases and Ozone Depletion
Published July 1988 through June 1999



Item #d92apr9

Special Issue: "Global Change, Part II," Marine Technol. Soc. J., 25(4), Winter 1991-92. (For Part I see GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE DIGEST, Prof. Pubs./Gen. Interest, Jan. 1992.) In addition to the following articles dealing with the human dimensions of cause or effects, there are shorter contributions relating to the role of the oceans in climate, deep ocean water, carbon fluxes in the upper ocean, and an experimental approach for CO2 disposal in the deep ocean. Contact Marine Technol. Soc., 1828 L St. NW, S. 906, Washington DC 20036 (202-775-5966) for single issues ($16, each part).

"Human Dimensions of Global Change," L.C. Hanson (Grad. School Oceanog., Univ. Rhode Island), Guest Ed., 3-6. Discusses issues related to population, tropical deforestation, technology and education.

"Biological Diversity and Neptune's Realm," T.E. Lovejoy (Smithsonian Inst., Washington, D.C.), R.H. Dwight, 7-12. Preventive action is needed to restrict the forcing mechanisms for climate change resulting from altered atmospheric composition.

"Sea Level As an Indicator of Climate and Global Change," B.B. Parker (Global Sea Level Prog., NOAA, Rockville, Md.), 13-24. Discusses the difficulties in predicting future global sea level rise, and determining whether the apparent recent increase can be attributed to greenhouse gases. Concludes that we really do not know how much sea level will rise over the next century.

"Energy and the Greenhouse Problem," I.M. Mintzer (Stockholm Environ. Inst., Washington D.C.), 25-29. To reduce the risks of rapid climate change while preserving the prospects for economic development, we must increase the efficiency of energy use and develop cleaner, safer and less carbon-intensive energy supplies.

"Agriculture, Forestry, and Food Security in Relation to Global Change," G.R. Evans (Off. Asst. Secy. Sci. & Educ., USDA, Washington, D.C.), 30-37. The world should first look to securing its capability to supply food, fiber and forest products; it can then focus on energy, industry and transportation. However, the latter concerns have been thrust into the spotlight so far.

"Human Health Effects and Global Climate Change," J.R. Fouts (Nat. Inst. Environ. Health Sci., Res. Triangle Pk., N.C.), W.T. Piver, 38-44.

"Recent Developments in Oceanic Farming of Marine Macroalgae," W.J. North (Keck Eng. Labs., California Inst. Technol., Pasadena, Calif.), 45-54. Oceanic farms for either fuel production or CO2 regulation would necessitate very large growing areas that would exceed space available in coastal waters, but they could easily be accommodated in the world's oceans.

Item #d92apr10

"Ecology and World Security," N. Brown (Intl. Security Affairs, Univ. Birmingham, U.K.), The World Today, 48(3), 51-54, Mar. 1992. (Roy. Inst. Intl. Affairs, Chatham House, 10 St. James's Sq., London SW1Y 4LE, UK)

Discusses the extent to which strategic security has been or may be considered by the United States and other countries in responding to possible climatic change. For instance, the IPCC predicts that increased biomass potential in northern Europe and decreased potential in southern Europe is possible, which would have an adverse effect on the development of the European Community. That several prominent figures of this century have been actively involved in both international security and environmental protection is encouraging, and suggests that a synthesis between the two streams of thought can be achieved.

Item #d92apr11

"The U.S. Government Response to Global Change: Analysis and Appraisal," R.G. Fleagle (Dept. Atmos. Sci., AK-40, Univ. Washington, Seattle WA 98195), Clim. Change, 20(1), 57-81, Jan. 1992.

This lengthy analysis considers global warming, stratospheric ozone depletion, and acid precipitation. In the last decade, initiative on these issues has passed from the U.S. to other nations, and U.S. responses have been tentative and temporizing, having emanated from a structure devised before there was general appreciation that national security and welfare is likely to depend on how well we cope with environmental problems of global scale. The piecemeal approach being taken by the Executive Branch, Congress, and on the international level is unlikely to be adequate.

Needed are a strong science base at the national and international levels, and better mechanisms of interagency collaboration. In view of uncertainties, actions to mitigate the effects of global change (such as reducing emissions, and encouraging reforestation) should result in enlarged options, even if change does not occur in the manner predicted. Consideration of alternatives and international negotiations must be linked in a consistent manner to scientific understanding.

Item #d92apr12

"The Role of the University in Interdisciplinary Global Change Research: Structural Constraints and the Potential for Change--An Editorial," S.H. Schneider, (NCAR, POB 3000, Boulder CO 80307), ibid., vii-x.

Efforts to organize campuses to foster global change teaching and research are critical and overdue. Proposes the creation of global change institutes at universities, and describes several important functions they would serve.

Item #d92apr13

"Global Climate Change and Human Health," G. Bentham (CSERGE, Univ. E. Anglia, Norwich NR4 7TJ, UK), GeoJournal, 26(1), 7-12, Jan. 1992.

Human health impacts of predicted global warming are likely to be most obvious in the Third World, where some areas can expect increased frequency of floods and storms, changes in the availability of food and high quality water supplies, and climate-related changes in the ecology of insect vectors for diseases such as malaria. In developed countries, deaths from circulatory diseases may increase, although warmer winters may cause lower mortality. Effects of greater photochemical pollution and increased exposure to ultraviolet radiation are also discussed.

Item #d92apr14

"Halocarbons and Global Warming," C. Kroeze (Dept. Environ. Sci., Univ. Amsterdam, Nieuwe Prinsengracht, 130 1018 VZ, Amsterdam, Neth.), L. Reijnders, Sci. Tot. Environ., 111(1), 1-24, Jan. 1, 1992.

Uses a zero-dimensional model to calculate temperature forcing by halocarbons between 1985 and 2100 assuming different production scenarios for CFCs, H(C)FCs, CH3CCl3 and CCl4. Assuming strong restriction of CFCs, the particular choice of H(C)FCs and whether their applications are restricted are the most important factors determining the impact of halocarbons on future global warming.

Item #d92apr15

"The Global Research Agenda: A South-North Perspective," Interdisciplinary Sci. Rev., 16(4), 337-344, Dec. 1991.

An analysis of the complex environmental and social problems of the South and North by the International Development Research Centre (IDRC), which for 20 years has encouraged cooperation among researchers all over the world. It is useless for scientists from the northern industrial countries to set up ultramodern laboratories in the southern developing countries for the pursuit of pure science; researchers must cooperate on problems experienced by both the developed and developing countries.

Item #d92apr16

"The Global Consequences of Increasing Tropospheric Ozone Concentrations," J. Fishman (Atmos. Sci. Div., M-S 401A, NASA-Langley, Hampton VA 23665), Chemosphere, 22(7), 685-695, 1991.

Analysis of long-term records suggests that tropospheric ozone is increasing at a rate of 1-2% per year. The corresponding amount of global warming is comparable to, and possibly exceeds, that due to carbon dioxide. However, unlike other climatically important trace gases, tropospheric ozone is toxic and can cause direct environmental damage and impair human health.

Item #d92apr17

"The Legal Control of Chlorofluorocarbon and Halon Substances in Hong Kong," M.J. Downey (Dept. Business, Hong Kong Polytech., Kowloon, Hong Kong), Environ. Monitor. Assess., 19(1-3), 183-191, Oct.-Dec. 1991. Explains regulations resulting from the Montreal Protocol and their major implications in light of the circumstances of Hong Kong. For instance, almost 100% of Hong Kong's re-exports of CFC and halon substances are to countries that have not signed the Protocol.

Item #d92apr18

Special Issue: "Sustainable Policies and Making Them Work," G. McDonell (Sch. Sci. Studies, Univ. New South Wales, POB 1, Kensington, NSW 2033, Australia), R. Harding, Eds., Sci. Total Environ., 108(1-2), Oct. 1991. Contains 15 papers and a summary from a conference held in Sydney (Nov. 1989) dealing with all aspects of the topic--policy, law, impact assessment and monitoring.

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