February 28, 2007
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Global Climate Change Digest
A Guide to Information on Greenhouse Gases and Ozone Depletion
Published July 1988 through June 1999
FROM VOLUME 5, NUMBER 4, APRIL 1992
IMPACTS OF ULTRAVIOLET
"Indications of Future Decreasing Trends in Skin Melanoma Mortality
among Whites in the United States," J. Scotto (U.S. Nat. Cancer Inst.), H.
Pitcher, J.A.H. Lee, Int. J. Cancer, 49(4), 490-497, Oct. 21,
Trends in skin melanoma death rates during 1950-1984 were analyzed according
to age, sex and birth cohort for whites in the U.S. Upward trends were observed
for men and women over 40, but downward trends for younger age groups. Results
indicate that baseline data necessary for assessing the potential effects on
this disease of future ozone depletion would be improved with the inclusion of
cohort data and age-specific trend analyses.
"Differential Effect of Ultraviolet-B Radiation on Certain
Metabolic Processes in a Chromatically Adapting Nostoc," R. Tyagi
et al., A. Kumar (Ctr. Adv. Study in Botany, Banaras Hindu Univ., Varanasi 221
005, India), Photochem. Photobiol., 55(3), 401-407, Mar. 1992.
A brownish form of cyanobacterium studied (phycoerythrin rich) was found to
be more tolerant to laboratory UV-B exposure than the blue-green (phycocyanin
rich) form. UV-B may produce a deleterious effect on several metabolic
activities of cyanobacteria, especially in cells lacking phycoerythrin.
"Effects of Ultraviolet Radiation on the Primary Production of
Natural Phytoplankton Assemblages in Lake Michigan," W.R. Gala (Chevron
Res. Technol. Co., 100 Chevron Wy., Richmond CA 94802), J.P. Giesy, Ecotoxicol.
Environ. Safety, 22(3), 345-361, Dec. 1991.
Inhibition of primary production of phytoplankton assemblages by solar UV
was observed from April to October during in situ incubations in
Plexiglas chambers. A hazard assessment model predicted a significant (13%)
reduction in areal (total water column) primary production for offshore Lake
Michigan, due to current solar UV intensities. Concern about possible increased
reduction of primary production in the North American Great Lakes due to ozone
depletion appears to be unwarranted.
"Survey of Mycosporine-Like Amino Acid Compounds in Antarctic
Marine Organisms: Potential Protection from Ultraviolet Exposure," D.
Karentz (Lab. Radiobiol., Univ. California, San Francisco CA 94143), F.S. McEuen
et al., Marine Biol., 108(1), 157-166, 1991.
Fifty-seven species (1 fish, 48 invertebrates, 8 algae) were collected
during the austral spring in Antarctica and analyzed for the presence of
mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs), compounds that absorb and may provide
shielding from UV radiation. MAAs were found in nearly 90% of the species
examined, confirming their widespread occurrence in Antarctic marine organisms
and suggesting that these species have some degree of natural biochemical
protection from UV exposure.
"Cell Survival Characteristics and Molecular Responses of Antarctic
Phytoplankton to Ultraviolet-B Radiation," D. Karentz (addr. above), J.
Phycol., 27(3), 326-341, June 1991.
Twelve species of Antarctic diatoms were studied to assess UV sensitivity in
relation to cellular and molecular aspects of DNA damage and repair. The wide
species variations observed emphasize the ecological implications of changes in
natural UV regimes. These changes can act as determinants of cell size and
taxonomic structure within phytoplankton communities, and have as yet unknown
effects on trophic interactions within the Antarctic ecosystem.
"Changes in Growth and Photosynthetic Capacity of Rice with
Increased UV-B Radiation," A.H. Teramura (Dept. Bot., Univ. Maryland,
College Pk. MD 20742), L.H. Ziska, A.E. Sztein, Physiol. Plantarum, 83(3),
Sixteen rice cultivars from seven geographical regions of the world were
exposed in greenhouses to supplemental UV-B. About a third of the cultivars
showed sensitivity to UV-B in terms of reduced biomass, leaf area and tiller
number. The great diversity of responses exhibited by various cultivars suggests
that strains tolerant to UV-B could be developed through selective breeding.
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