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Global Climate Change DigestArchives of the
Global Climate Change Digest

A Guide to Information on Greenhouse Gases and Ozone Depletion
Published July 1988 through June 1999



Item #d92apr50

"Indications of Future Decreasing Trends in Skin Melanoma Mortality among Whites in the United States," J. Scotto (U.S. Nat. Cancer Inst.), H. Pitcher, J.A.H. Lee, Int. J. Cancer, 49(4), 490-497, Oct. 21, 1991.

Trends in skin melanoma death rates during 1950-1984 were analyzed according to age, sex and birth cohort for whites in the U.S. Upward trends were observed for men and women over 40, but downward trends for younger age groups. Results indicate that baseline data necessary for assessing the potential effects on this disease of future ozone depletion would be improved with the inclusion of cohort data and age-specific trend analyses.

Item #d92apr51

"Differential Effect of Ultraviolet-B Radiation on Certain Metabolic Processes in a Chromatically Adapting Nostoc," R. Tyagi et al., A. Kumar (Ctr. Adv. Study in Botany, Banaras Hindu Univ., Varanasi 221 005, India), Photochem. Photobiol., 55(3), 401-407, Mar. 1992.

A brownish form of cyanobacterium studied (phycoerythrin rich) was found to be more tolerant to laboratory UV-B exposure than the blue-green (phycocyanin rich) form. UV-B may produce a deleterious effect on several metabolic activities of cyanobacteria, especially in cells lacking phycoerythrin.

Item #d92apr52

"Effects of Ultraviolet Radiation on the Primary Production of Natural Phytoplankton Assemblages in Lake Michigan," W.R. Gala (Chevron Res. Technol. Co., 100 Chevron Wy., Richmond CA 94802), J.P. Giesy, Ecotoxicol. Environ. Safety, 22(3), 345-361, Dec. 1991.

Inhibition of primary production of phytoplankton assemblages by solar UV was observed from April to October during in situ incubations in Plexiglas chambers. A hazard assessment model predicted a significant (13%) reduction in areal (total water column) primary production for offshore Lake Michigan, due to current solar UV intensities. Concern about possible increased reduction of primary production in the North American Great Lakes due to ozone depletion appears to be unwarranted.

Item #d92apr53

"Survey of Mycosporine-Like Amino Acid Compounds in Antarctic Marine Organisms: Potential Protection from Ultraviolet Exposure," D. Karentz (Lab. Radiobiol., Univ. California, San Francisco CA 94143), F.S. McEuen et al., Marine Biol., 108(1), 157-166, 1991.

Fifty-seven species (1 fish, 48 invertebrates, 8 algae) were collected during the austral spring in Antarctica and analyzed for the presence of mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs), compounds that absorb and may provide shielding from UV radiation. MAAs were found in nearly 90% of the species examined, confirming their widespread occurrence in Antarctic marine organisms and suggesting that these species have some degree of natural biochemical protection from UV exposure.

Item #d92apr54

"Cell Survival Characteristics and Molecular Responses of Antarctic Phytoplankton to Ultraviolet-B Radiation," D. Karentz (addr. above), J. Phycol., 27(3), 326-341, June 1991.

Twelve species of Antarctic diatoms were studied to assess UV sensitivity in relation to cellular and molecular aspects of DNA damage and repair. The wide species variations observed emphasize the ecological implications of changes in natural UV regimes. These changes can act as determinants of cell size and taxonomic structure within phytoplankton communities, and have as yet unknown effects on trophic interactions within the Antarctic ecosystem.

Item #d92apr55

"Changes in Growth and Photosynthetic Capacity of Rice with Increased UV-B Radiation," A.H. Teramura (Dept. Bot., Univ. Maryland, College Pk. MD 20742), L.H. Ziska, A.E. Sztein, Physiol. Plantarum, 83(3), 373-380, 1991.

Sixteen rice cultivars from seven geographical regions of the world were exposed in greenhouses to supplemental UV-B. About a third of the cultivars showed sensitivity to UV-B in terms of reduced biomass, leaf area and tiller number. The great diversity of responses exhibited by various cultivars suggests that strains tolerant to UV-B could be developed through selective breeding.

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