February 28, 2007
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Global Climate Change Digest
A Guide to Information on Greenhouse Gases and Ozone Depletion
Published July 1988 through June 1999
FROM VOLUME 5, NUMBER 2, FEBRUARY 1992
GENERAL INTEREST AND COMMENTARY
"Climate Forcing by Anthropogenic Aerosols," R.J. Charlson
(Dept. Atmos. Sci., Univ. Washington, AK-40, Seattle WA 98195), S.E. Schwartz et
al., Science, 255(5043), 423-430, Jan. 14, 1992.
Anthropogenic sulfate aerosol contributes to planetary cooling by direct
scattering of shortwave solar radiation and by increasing the albedo of clouds.
These effects are estimated to currently be comparable in magnitude to
greenhouse gas forcing, although of the opposite sign. However, differences in
geographical and seasonal dependence of the influence preclude any simple
compensation. To account for this effect when evaluating anthropogenic
influences on past, current and future climate, and in formulating policy,
requires research on the controlling physical and chemical processes.
"How Industrial Countries Are Responding to Global Climate Change,"
K. Schmidt (Environ. & Energy Study Inst., 122 C St. NW, Washington DC
20001), Intl. Environ. Affairs, 3(4), 292-315, Fall 1991.
Summarizes individual actions by the 24 members of the OECD and by the
European Community as of May 1991, focusing on national commitments and policy
measures related to anthropogenic emissions of carbon dioxide. Also mentions
commitments relating to other greenhouse gases and carbon sinks, and targets for
CFC phase-out earlier than the year 2000.
Special section: "Global Climate Change: Research, Prevention, and
Adaptation," Issues Sci. Technol., Winter 1991-92. Published by
Nat. Acad. Sci.; for single copy sales contact the journal at POB 661, Holmes PA
19043, or call 202-334-3305.
"Keeping Climate Research Relevant," E.S. Rubin (Environ. Inst.,
Carnegie Mellon Univ.), L.B. Lave, M.G. Morgan, 47-55. Government attempts to
deal with global warming appear to be headed down the same ill-fated path as the
recent acid rain research program: producing good science, but not yielding
policy-relevant information in a timely manner. The program needs to articulate
its objectives and establish a management plan for achieving them. It should be
reviewed and if necessary revised periodically through an integrated assessment
process, carried out independently by at least two teams of researchers: one
drawn from nongovernmental organizations, the other from within government. This
process has already been initiated for certain parts of the program by some
government agencies, but a comprehensive treatment of the entire program is
"Science and Climate Policy: A History Lesson," C.N. Herrick (Nat.
Clim. Prog. Off., NOAA), 56-57. Draws a parallel between the U.S. government
policy toward settling of the arid western U.S. in the late 19th century, and
current attempts to deal with global climate change. Each situation demonstrates
that social factors can dominate scientific input.
"The Road to Reduced Carbon Emissions," R. Bierbaum (Off. Technol.
Assessment), R.M. Friedman, 58-65. Summarizes the results of an assessment by
the Office of Technology Assessment of the potential for reducing U.S. CO2
emissions under different scenarios. (See Reports/United States, GLOBAL
CLIMATE CHANGE DIGEST, Mar. 1991.) To reduce emissions in the year 2015 to
35% below 1987 levels, a mix of regulatory and market-based federal policies
will be needed.
"Preserving Biodiversity in a Changing Climate," R.L. Peters (W.
Alton Jones Foundation, Charlottesville, Va.), J.P. Myers, 66-72. Although
climate change would add to the present loss of species diversity, scientific
reports and discussions have downplayed the threat, and lack the sense of
urgency necessary to spur action, which is needed now. Elements of the Federal
Coordinating Council for Science, Engineering, and Technology could play key
roles, and agencies such as the Forest Service, the Fish and Wildlife Service,
and the Bureau of Land Management must incorporate this concern in their
management plans. Even conservation and other watchdog groups have been
remarkably silent on this problem.
"Impact of Aircraft and Surface Emissions of Nitrogen Oxides on
Tropospheric Warming," C. Johnson (AEA Environ. & Energy, Harwell Lab.,
Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0RA, UK), J. Henshaw, G. McInnes, Nature, 355(6355),
69-71, Jan. 2, 1992.
Both aircraft and surface emissions of nitrogen oxides lead to the formation
of tropospheric ozone, a greenhouse gas. However, model calculations show that
the radiative forcing of surface temperature is about 30 times more sensitive to
the former. The impact on global warming of increases in tropospheric ozone
caused by increased surface emissions of nitrogen oxides has previously been
overestimated by a factor of five, because of an error in calculating the ozone
"Nitrous Oxide Emissions from Vehicles," J.M. Dasch (Gen.
Motors Res. Lab., 305000 Mound Rd., Box 9055, Warren MI 48090), J. Air Waste
Mgmt. Assoc., 42(1), 63-67, Jan. 1992.
The contribution of vehicular emissions of N2O to global warming is in doubt
because of the recent discovery that catalytic converters increase emissions and
because past measurements are questionable due to artifact N2O formation. This
paper combines new measurements with literature values to conclude that
vehicular emissions of N2O from the U.S. contribute only 0.1% of the calculated
temperature increase from greenhouse gases.
"Oceanic Consumption of CH3CCl3: Implications for Tropospheric OH,"
J.H. Butler (CMDL, NOAA, 325 Broadway, Boulder CO 80303), J.W. Elkins et al.,
J. Geophys. Res., 96(D12), 22,347-22,355, Dec. 20, 1991.
Data collected over a two-month period in the mid-Pacific provide the first
direct evidence of CH3CCl3 consumption in the surface waters of the ocean,
possibly 5 to 11% of the CH3CCl3 removed from the atmosphere. This neglected
sink represents a systematic error in calculating tropospheric OH concentration
from CH3CCl3 production, growth and distribution in the atmosphere. (See
Research News, this GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE DIGEST issue--Feb. 1992.)
"Influences of Various Forcing Variables on Global Energy Balance
During the Period of Intensive Instrumental Observation (1958-1987) and Their
Implications for Paleoclimate," J. Gunn (Brockington & Assoc., 1921
Billabong Lane, Chapel Hill NC 27516), Clim. Change, 19(4),
393-420, Dec. 1991.
Analysis of factors contributing to the global energy balance, based on the
30-year record of atmospheric variables, shows that the El Niņo-Southern
Oscillation (ENSO), CO2 changes and variations in solar energy output each
account for about a quarter or more of the variability in the balance. The ENSO
appears to act as a hemispheric energy balancing mechanism. Examination of past
climates, in terms of alternating hemispheric dominance of global climate and
related patterns of periodic stability, could explain the rise and fall of some
complex hierarchical social systems.
"Can Intensive Management Increase Carbon Storage in Forests?"
P. Schroeder (ERL, EPA, 200 SW 35th St., Corvallis OR 97333), Environ. Mgmt.,
15(4), 475-481, July-Aug. 1991.
Uses data from the literature and from forest growth and yield models
applied to Douglas-fir and loblolly pine, to analyze the effect of three
management practices: thinning, fertilization, and control of competing
vegetation. Thinning generally does not increase carbon storage, but
fertilization does; the largest gains in carbon storage are likely to come from
fertilizing thinned or less dense stands.
Guide to Publishers
Index of Abbreviations