February 28, 2007
GCRIO Program Overview
Our extensive collection of documents.
Archives of the
Global Climate Change Digest
A Guide to Information on Greenhouse Gases and Ozone Depletion
Published July 1988 through June 1999
FROM VOLUME 5, NUMBER 1, JANUARY 1992
GENERAL INTEREST AND POLICY
Three items from J. Air Waste Mgmt. Assoc., 41(12), Dec.
"Organizing for Risk Oriented Climate Alteration Research," G.M.
Hidy (EPRI, POB 10412, Palo Alto CA 94303), S.C. Peck, 1570-1578.
Characterizing the potential environmental consequences of climate change as
a basis for formulating policy involves the merging of a broad range of earth
sciences with the social sciences, but so far this merger has not been
effectively executed. An example is the U.S. Global Change Research Program,
despite its "bottom up" approach strong in diverse natural science. A "top
down" approach that links the natural and socioeconomic sciences can better
support environmental risk assessment and setting of research priorities. Some
preliminary results of such an approach are given.
"Impact of Alternative Fuels on Vehicle Emissions of Greenhouse Gases,"
G.T. Wolff (Environ. Sci. Dept., General Motors Res. Labs., Warren MI 48090),
R.A. Frosch, 1616-1619.
A review comparing estimates made by various groups, and the procedures used
to obtain them, of the impact on greenhouse gas emissions of using fuels other
than gasoline. Concludes that converting even the entire global vehicle fleet to
fuels that produce lower CO2 emissions would have only a minor impact.
"Stratospheric Ozone Protection: An EPA Engineering Perspective,"
W.J. Rhodes (AEERL, US EPA, Res. Triangle Pk. NC 27711), 1579-1584.
Discusses the status of technical solutions for reducing or eliminating
CFCs, halons, methylchloroform and carbon tetrachloride in the major uses:
refrigeration, foam, aerosols, fire protection, and solvents. Includes
cooperative efforts of academia, industry and national governments.
"A Sea of Change: Monitoring the Oceans' Carbon Cycle," D.M.
Karl (Dept. Oceanog., Univ. Hawaii, 1000 Pope Rd., Honolulu HI 96882), C.D.
Winn, Environ. Sci. Technol., 25(12), 1977-1981, Dec. 1991.
Summarizes the important features of the oceanic carbon cycle, such as the "biological
pump," which causes a downward flux of biogenic materials including carbon,
and their importance to global change studies. Specifically describes the Hawaii
Ocean Time-Series (HOT) program, designed to understand these processes.
"Sensitivity of the Earth's Climate to Height-Dependent Changes in
the Water Vapour Mixing Ratio," K.P. Shine (Dept. Meteor., Univ. Reading, 2
Earley Gate, Reading RG2 2AU, UK), A. Sinha, Nature, 354(6352),
382-384, Dec. 5, 1991.
Although climate models suggest that atmospheric water vapor will provide a
positive feedback to greenhouse warming, Lindzen's argument that this effect is
overestimated assumes that upper tropospheric water vapor is most important.
This study combines radiative transfer calculations with observations to
conclude that the Earth's radiation budget is most sensitive to changes in lower
tropospheric water concentrations.
Extensive discussion between S.B. Idso and others on the aerial
fertilization effect of CO2 and implications for global carbon cycling are in
Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 72(12), 1905-1914, Dec. 1991.
Special Issue: "Global Change, Part I," Marine
Technol. Soc. J., 25(3), Fall 1991, L.C. Hanson (Grad. School
Oceanog., Univ. Rhode Island), Guest Ed. The first of two issues consists
largely of edited versions of papers from public presentations at the University
of Rhode Island in spring of 1991. This part covers mainly scientific topics by
experts, but presented in lay language; the second will cover human impacts.
Contact Marine Technol. Soc., 1828 L St. NW, 9th Fl., Washington DC 20036
(202-775-5966) for single issues ($16, each part).
"Overview of Global Environmental Change: The Science and Social
Science Issues," W.W. Kellogg (Nat. Ctr. Atmos. Res.), 5-11.
"Atmospheric Chemistry: Causes and Effects," F. S. Rowland (Univ.
"The Changing Global Carbon Cycle: Dust to Dust," B. Moore III
(Univ. New Hampshire), 19-24.
"International Institutions for the Global Environment," J.S.
Perry (Nat. Acad. Sci.), 25-32.
"Mitigation Options and Economic Consequences," A. Miller (Univ.
"International Solutions to the Ozone and Climate Change Problems,"
A.D. Hecht (U.S. EPA), 42-47.
"National Legislation and Other Options for Addressing Potential Global
Warming," C. Schneider (formerly U.S. Congress), 48-51.
"Is There Time to Measure (Not Speculate) Ocean Warming Before Making
Policy?" W.H. Munk (Scripps Inst. Oceanog.), 52-57.
"Airborne Particles on Global and Regional Scales," G.E. Gordon
(Dept. Chem., Univ. Maryland, College Pk. MD 20742), Environ. Sci. Technol.,
25(11), 1822-1829, Nov. 1991.
A report of a recent American Chemical Society symposium (Atlanta, Ga.,
April 14-19, 1991) dealing with effects of airborne particles on climate and the
environment, and techniques being used for investigation. Important questions
include: the influence of particles on cloudiness; optical properties of the
atmosphere and albedo of snow and ice; the importance of particles as sources of
nutrients for biological productivity (such as iron in certain ocean areas).
Two items from Climatic Change, 19(3), Oct. 1991:
"Slowing the Increase of Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide: A Biological
Approach," P. Schroeder (NSI Tech. Serv. Corp., ERL, US EPA, 200 SW 35th
St., Corvallis OR 97333), L. Ladd, 283-290. Based on forestry growth and yield models, it would take 192 million
hectares of Douglas fir or 250 million hectares of Loblolly pine to store the
U.S. anthropogenic carbon emissions over a 50-year period. For periods this long
it is important to consider a species' cumulative carbon storage potential
rather than its potential maximum growth rate. Forestation appears to be
feasible as one component of managing the CO2 problem, but it must be practiced
globally to be effective.
"International Seminar on Climatic Fluctuations and Water Management,"
A.K. Biswas (Intl. Water Resour. Assoc., 76 Woodstock Close, Oxford OX2 8DD,
UK), 345-348. Lists eight recommendations for research, monitoring and
international coordination, from a December 1989 meeting in Cairo, Egypt.
"Design of Ecological Networks for Monitoring Global Change,"
R.G. Bailey (USDA For. Serv., 3825 E. Mulberry St., Ft. Collins CO 80521), Environ.
Conserv., 18(2), 173-175, Summer 1991.
Describes an approach for selecting sites for efficient monitoring by
dividing the landscape into relatively homogeneous geographic regions where
similar ecosystems have developed on sites having similar properties.
"Using Transoceanic Cables to Quantify Global Environmental Changes,"
D.A. Walker (Inst. Geophys., Univ. Hawaii Manoa, 2525 Correa Rd., Honolulu HI
96822), Eos, 72(37), 393, 398, Sep. 10, 1991. Summarizes a
workshop (Honolulu, Feb. 1990) that considered the potential uses of coaxial
telecommunications cables soon to be made obsolete by fiber optic cables.
"Making Mars Habitable," C.P. McKay (Space Sci. Div., NASA-Ames,
Moffett Field CA 94035), O.B. Toon, J.F. Kasting, Nature, 352(6335),
489-496, Aug. 8, 1991. Discusses the prospects for "terraforming" Mars
by altering its atmosphere, in a manner analogous to the apparent greenhouse
modification of Earth.
"Atmospheric Methane--Its Contribution to Global Warming," O.
Badr (Dept. Appl. Energy, Cranfield Inst. Technol., Cranfield MK43 0AL, UK),
S.D. Probert, P.W. O'Callaghan, Appl. Energy, 40(4), 273-313,
Describes methods for estimating the change in atmospheric concentrations of
methane, and for predicting its global warming effect. Concentrations could
exceed 4 ppmv by the end of the next century if no control policies are adopted,
producing a rise in the surface temperature of the Earth of over 0.5? C.
Several possible control strategies are discussed.
"U.S. National Report to International Union of Geodesy and
Geophysics, 1987-1990," M.A. Shea, Ed.-in-Chief, Suppl. to Rev.
Geophys., 29, 1186 pp., 1991. This quadrennial report includes
individually authored reviews of research progress on topics including
atmospheric chemistry and meteorology, physical and chemical oceanography, and
New Journal: International Journal of Energy, Environment and
Economics. Nova Sci. Publishers, 283 Commack Rd., S. 300, Commack NY 11725.
Quarterly; $95 indiv., $145 libraries. Topics in the first issue include
greenhouse effect, trends in nonrenewable energy and oceanic sinks for CO2.
Expanded Emphasis: Dynamics of Ocean and Atmospheres is
now subtitled Planetary Fluids, Climatic and Biogeochemical Systems, and
is soliciting papers on theoretical, numerical, observational and biogeochemical
studies. Fluid dynamics should play an essential role for articles on climatic
and biogeochemical problems.
Guide to Publishers
Index of Abbreviations