February 28, 2007
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FROM VOLUME 5, NUMBER 1, JANUARY 1992
MARINE CO2 UPTAKE
"Comments on the Role of Oceanic Biota as a Sink for Anthropogenic
CO2 Emissions," S.V. Smith (Dept. Oceanog., Univ. Hawaii, Honolulu HI
96822), F.T. Mackenzie, Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 5(3),
189-190, Sep. 1991.
A significant new production sink for CO2 can be demonstrated only if new
production has increased substantially as CO2 emissions have increased; this
requires increased nutrient supply, which is more likely in the coastal ocean
than the open ocean. Research on open ocean production will not solve the
problem of the "missing CO2" in global carbon budgets, yet coastal
research programs are inadequately designed to address the global question.
"Response to the Comment by S.V. Smith and F.T. Mackenzie," R.
Revelle, ibid., 5(4), 317-318, Dec. 1991. Presents Revelle's
contrasting views on carbon transport to the oceans prompted by the previous
The following three papers, ibid., are comments on a paper by
Broecker in that journal (p. 191, Sep. 1991) questioning the importance of
biological processes in the open ocean to the anthropogenic CO2 increase.
"False Advertising in the Greenhouse?" K. Banse (Sch. Oceanog.,
WB-10, Univ. Washington, Seattle WA 98195), 305-308. Argues for more
biological-oceanographic emphasis in global change research, not less.
"A Reply to Broecker's Charges," A.R. Longhurst (Bedford Inst.
Oceanog., Dartmouth, N.S. B2Y 4A2, Can.), 315-316. Broecker's argument that
biological studies should have no place in research is incorrect and unfounded.
"Ocean Uptake of CO2: The Major Uncertainties," J.L. Sarmiento
(Atmos.-Ocean Sci., Princeton Univ., Princeton NJ 08544), 309-314. The recent
comments by Broecker and by Smith and Mackenzie (see above) both go too far in
minimizing the importance of the biological pump in global change. Offers an
overview of issues that are important in estimating oceanic uptake of
anthropogenic CO2, and where the biological pump fits into them, as an attempt
at a more balanced point of view.
"Evolution of the Joint Global Ocean Flux Study," Ambio,
20(7), 347, Nov. 1991. A summary from the IGBP Secretariat of the aims
of the JGOFS, particularly with respect to the question of the relevance of
ocean productivity to climate change. For information contact G. Evans, JGOFS, Büro,
Inst. Meeredknd., Dusternbrooker Weg 20, D-2300 Kiel, Ger.
Two articles from Eos, Nov. 19, 1991:
"Iron Fertilization with Volcanic Ash?" C.S. Spirakis (U.S. Geol.
Survey, Denver, Colo.), 525. Periodic additions of iron-bearing volcanic ash to
the oceans represent natural iron-fertilization experiments that could be
evaluated for their effects on ocean productivity.
"Particle Flux Studies in the Indian Ocean," V. Ittekkot (Inst.
Marine Chem., Univ. Hamburg, Bundesstr. 55, 200 Hamburg 13, Ger.), 527, 530.
Presents initial results of studies supported by the governments of Germany and
India, and their implications for marine uptake and storage of atmospheric CO2.
"Development and Assessment of an Analytical System for the Accurate
and Continual Measurement of Total Dissolved Inorganic Carbon," C. Robinson
(Sch. Ocean Sci., Univ. College N. Wales, Menai Bridge LL59 5EY, UK), P.J. leB.
Williams, Marine Chem., 43(3-4), 157-175, Oct. 1991. Permits
high-density analyses (1-2 km resolution) while maintaining interlaboratory
consistency and standardization.
Two items from J. Geophys. Res., 96(C11), Nov. 15, 1991:
"Assessment of the Air-Sea Exchange of CO2 in the South Pacific during
Austral Autumn," P.P. Murphy (PMEL, NOAA, 7600 Sand Pt. Way NE, Seattle WA
98115), R.A. Feely et al., 20,455-20,465. Basin-wide measurements in the air and
in surface waters, taken during the austral autumn over a five-year period, were
used to evaluate the seasonal flux of CO2 from the region, and its sensitivity
to uncertainty in the CO2 gas exchange coefficient. The integrated autumn flux
ranges from -0.03 GT of carbon (into the ocean) to +0.9, depending on the
combination of wind field and wind-dependent exchange coefficient used.
Discussion: "We Still Say Iron Deficiency Limits Phytoplankton Growth
in the Subarctic Pacific," J.H. Martin et al., 20,699-20,700; "Iron,
Nitrate Uptake by Phytoplankton, and Mermaids," K. Banse, 20,701.
"Do Upper-Ocean Sediment Traps Provide an Accurate Record of Particle
Flux?" K.O. Buesseler (Woods Hole Oceanog. Inst., Woods Hole MA 02543),
Nature, 353(6343), 420-422, Oct. 3, 1991.
Sediment traps are important for estimating the extent to which CO2 fixed by
primary producers is exported as particulate organic carbon, and it has been
suggested that 234Th might be used to `calibrate' shallow-trap fluxes. This
paper shows, however, that trap-derived and model-derived 234Th fluxes can
differ by a factor of 3-10.
"The Transport of Anthropogenic Carbon Dioxide into the Weddell Sea,"
L.G. Anderson (Chalmers Univ. Technol., S-412 96 Göteborg, Swed.), J.
Geophys. Res., 96(C9), 16,679-16,687, Sep. 15, 1991.
Total carbonate data collected during the Swedish Antarctic Expedition in
the Weddell Sea, one of the major deep-water formation areas, was combined with
water mass mixing conditions and atmosphere-ocean CO2 exchange to estimate the
anthropogenic input of CO2. The total sequestering in these waters is less than
1% of the annual anthropogenic emissions of about 5.5 GT.
"CO2 Transport at the Air-Sea Interface: Effect of Coupling of Heat
and Matter Fluxes," L.F. Phillips (Chem. Dept., Univ. Canterbury,
Christchurch, N. Zealand), Geophys. Res. Lett., 18(7),
1221-1224, July 1991.
Contrary to existing calculations of air-sea CO2 flux, a proper description
requires the use of irreversible thermodynamics; the heat and matter fluxes are
coupled through the heat of solution of the gas. Shows that the driving force
for CO2 transport due to temperature differences across the interface is
comparable to that arising from the partial pressure difference.
"A Modeling Investigation of the Role of Phytoplankton in the Balance
of Carbon at the Surface of the North Atlantic," A.H. Taylor, A.H. Watson
et al., Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 5(2), 151 ff., June 1991.
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