February 28, 2007
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Global Climate Change Digest
A Guide to Information on Greenhouse Gases and Ozone Depletion
Published July 1988 through June 1999
FROM VOLUME 5, NUMBER 7, JULY 1992
"The Oxidizing Capacity of the Earth's Atmosphere: Probable Past and
Future Changes," A.M. Thompson (Lab. Atmospheres, NASA-Goddard, Greenbelt
MD 20771), Science, 256(5060), 1157-1164, May 22, 1992.
Concentrations of the principal oxidants in the lower atmosphere--ozone,
hydroxyl radical (OH) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)--are important for a number
of critical atmospheric chemical problems. There is limited direct evidence for
changes in the atmosphere's oxidizing capacity since recent preindustrial times.
Models predict that tropospheric ozone will increase 0.3% to 1% per year over
the next 50 years, with both positive and negative trends possible for OH and
"Effects of Aerosol from Biomass Burning on the Global Radiation
Budget," J.E. Penner, R.E. Dickinson (Inst. Atmos. Phys., Univ. Arizona,
Tucson AZ 85721), C.A. O'Neill, Science, 256(5062),
1432-1434, June 5, 1992.
Biomass smoke particles reflect solar radiation directly, but also act as
cloud condensation nuclei, increasing reflectivity. The cooling resulting from
both effects may be comparable to the estimated cooling of sulfate aerosols.
Anthropogenic increases in smoke may have helped weaken greenhouse warming
caused by anthropogenic trace gases.
"The U.S. Department of Energy and the People's Republic of China's
Academy of Sciences Joint Research on the Greenhouse Effect: 1985-1991 Research
Progress," M.R. Riches (Environ. Sci., Off. Health & Environ., U.S.
Dept. Energy, Washington DC 20585), Z. Jianping et al., Bull. Amer. Meteor.
Soc., 73(5), 585-594, May 1992.
Summarizes work that has led to over 120 publications in four areas:
analysis of GCMs, preparation of proxy and instrumental data, the relationship
between large- and regional-scale climate, and emissions from rice paddies.
"Airborne Studies of the Smoke from the Kuwait Oil Fires," P.V.
Hobbs (Dept. Atmos. Sci., Univ. Washington, AK-40, Seattle WA 98195), L.F.
Radke, Science, 256(5059), 987-992, May 15, 1992. Measurements
show that the smoke probably had insignificant global effects for several
Three items from Nature, 356(6372), Apr. 30, 1992:
"Deep Ocean Circulation Puzzle," R. Zahn (GEOMAR, Wischhofstr.
1-3, 2300 Kiel 14, Ger.), 744-746. Explains why results of sediment core studies
reported in the following two papers require revision of notions of the
influence of deep ocean circulation on climate, particularly the triggering of
"Sudden Changes in North Atlantic Circulation during the Last
Deglaciation," S.J. Lehman (Woods Hole Oceanog. Inst., Woods Hole MA
02543), L.D. Keigwin, 757-762.
Sudden changes in the flow of warm Atlantic surface water into the Norwegian
Sea occurred frequently during the last deglaciation, leading to large and rapid
(decade-scale) changes in atmospheric temperatures, and to shifts in Atlantic
deep thermohaline circulation and ice-sheet melting rates.
"Water Mass Exchange between the North Atlantic and the Norwegian Sea
during the Past 28,000 Years," T. Veum, E. Jansen (Dept. Geol., Univ.
Bergen, Allégaten 41, N-5007 Bergen, Norway) et al., 783-785. Carbon and
oxygen isotope data show that observed rapid changes in the thermohaline
circulation could not have caused the onset of warming during the termination of
the Last Glacial Maximum, nor can they account for the transient return to
cooler climate during the Younger Dryas.
"Natural versus Anthropogenic Factors Affecting Low-Level Cloud
Albedo over the North Atlantic," P.G. Falkowski (Oceanog. Sci. Div.,
Brookhaven Nat. Lab., Upton NY 11973), Y. Kim et al., Science, 256(5061),
1311 ff., May 29, 1992.
Comparison of two independent satellite data sets shows that over the
central North Atlantic, variability in cloud albedo can be largely accounted for
by natural processes, although anthropogenic sulfate emissions may enhance
albedo near the east coast of the U.S.
"Climate-Driven pH Control of Remote Alpine Lakes and Effects of
Acid Deposition," R. Psenner (Inst. Zool., Univ. Innsbruck, A-6020
Innsbruck, Austria), Nature, 356(6372), 781-783, Apr. 30, 1992.
Paleolimnological data from the nineteenth century shows that lake acidity
in the Alps was inversely correlated with regional temperature before the
influence of anthropogenic acidic deposition. It is an open question whether the
leveling off that has been observed recently in lake pH decline is due to rising
temperatures or to decreasing precipitation acidity.
"Ozone Response to a CO2 Doubling: Results from a Stratospheric
Circulation Model with Heterogeneous Chemistry," G. Pitari (Dip. Fis.,
Univ. degli Studi-L'Aquila, 67010 Coppito, L'Aquila, Italy), S. Palermi, G.
Visconti, J. Geophys. Res., 97(D5), 5953-5962, Apr. 20, 1992.
A model including polar stratospheric cloud (PSC) mechanisms was used to
investigate the possibility that lower stratospheric cooling expected from
greenhouse warming could enhance PSC formation and ozone destruction. Results
support this possibility.
"The Chemical Mechanisms behind Ozone Depletion," I. Folkins
(NCAR, POB 3000, Boulder CO 80307), G. Brasseur, Chem. & Industry,
pp. 294-297, Apr. 20, 1992. Reviews chemical reactions as well as the
broader context of ozone destruction, based on work through early 1992.
"Environmental Information from Ice Cores," R.J. Delmas (Lab.
Glaciol., St. Martin d'Hères, France), Rev. Geophys., 30(1),
1-21, Feb. 1992.
Reviews techniques for determining atmospheric parameters from ice cores,
essential for understanding preindustrial conditions so that we can anticipate
future changes. During the ice ages, atmospheric CO2 and CH4 contents were
lower, sea salt and crustal dust was higher, and the biogeochemical cycles of S
and N were altered.
"Global Warming," M. Hulme (Clim. Res. Unit, Univ. E. Anglia,
Norwich NR4 7TJ, UK), Prog. Phys. Geog., 15(3), 310-318, 1991.
The first of three annual reports, this gives an overview of research
(generally not covered in the first IPCC report) concerning the date of doubling
of CO2-equivalent concentration, global climate sensitivity, and regional
Guide to Publishers
Index of Abbreviations