February 28, 2007
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Global Climate Change Digest
A Guide to Information on Greenhouse Gases and Ozone Depletion
Published July 1988 through June 1999
FROM VOLUME 5, NUMBER 6, JUNE 1992
"Measured Trends in Stratospheric Ozone," R. Stolarski
(NASA-Goddard, Greenbelt MD 20771), R. Bojkov et al., Science, 256(5055),
342-349, Apr. 17, 1992.
Presents recent findings based on a chapter of the WMO report Scientific
Assessment of Ozone Depletion: 1992. Analysis of both satellite and
ground-based data, including records from the former Soviet Union through March
1991, show a fairly consistent picture indicating an apparent downward trend in
the total column of ozone over the middle latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere
in all seasons.
Three items from Nature, 356(6370), Apr. 16, 1992:
"Conveying That Sinking Feeling," A. Watson (Plymouth Marine Lab.,
Prospect Pl., Plymouth PL1 3DH, UK), 561-562. Discusses recent advances in
understanding of the role of the ocean in the carbon budget (particularly the "great
ocean conveyor" of surface water which sinks near Labrador), and results of
the following two papers.
"Interhemispheric Transport of Carbon Dioxide by Ocean Circulation,"
W.S. Broecker (Lamont-Doherty Geolog. Observ., Palisades NY 10964), T.-H. Peng,
587-589. Estimates interhemispheric flux by separating oceanic carbon anomalies
created by biogenic processes from those created by CO2 exchange with the
atmosphere. Results raise questions about the existence of a large terrestrial
carbon sink as postulated by Tans et al.
"Revised Budget for the Oceanic Uptake of Anthropogenic Carbon Dioxide,"
J.L. Sarmiento (Atmos. & Oceanic Sci. Prog., Princeton Univ., Princeton NJ
08544), E.T. Sundquist, 589-593. Adjustments to a previous estimate of the
synoptic air-to-sea CO2 influx (including the flux of carbon to the ocean by
rivers and rain) reduce its apparent inconsistency with an estimate based on
"Intercomparison and Interpretation of Surface Energy Fluxes in
Atmospheric General Circulation Models," D.A. Randall (Dept. Atmos. Sci.,
Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins CO 80523), R.D. Cess et al., J. Geophys.
Res., 97(D4), 3711-3724, Mar. 20, 1992.
Differences in the responses of net surface energy fluxes in 19 GCMs to an
imposed sea surface temperature perturbation of 4 K were determined primarily by
the response of latent heat flux, not by cloud effects. Concludes that major
differences in the climate sensitivities of existing GCMs are related to
different parameterizations of moist processes, and cannot be narrowed simply by
increasing model resolution.
Two items from Tellus, 43AB(4), Aug.-Sep. 1991 (from a
special issue; titles only were listed in GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE DIGEST,
Prof. Pubs./Tellus Special Issue, Apr. 1992):
"The Changing Photochemistry of the Troposphere," P.J. Crutzen (M.
Planck Inst. Chem., POB 3060, D-6500 Mainz, Ger.), P.H. Zimmermann, 136-151. Due
to a variety of human activities, particularly increasing emissions of CH4, CO
and NOx, it is possible that the concentration of hydroxyl (OH) radicals is
decreasing in clean tropospheric environments. A consequence would be a buildup
of several long-lived trace gases that are primarily removed by reaction with
"Perturbation of the Northern Hemisphere Radiative Balance by
Backscattering from Anthropogenic Sulfate Aerosols," R.J. Charlson (Dept.
Atmos. Sci., AK-40, Univ. Washington, Seattle WA 98195), J. Langner et al.,
152-163. Uses a 3-D global model to estimate that solar flux reflected by
sulfate particles in cloud-free air is comparable but opposite in sign to the
estimated radiative forcing by anthropogenic CO2, averaged over the Northern
"Present and Future CFC and Other Trace Gas Warming: Results from a
Seasonal Climate Model," D.A. Hauglustaine (Service d'Aeronomie du CNRS,
Univ. de Paris VI, 4 Pl. Jussieu, B. 102, F-75230 Paris Cedex 05, France), J.-C.
Gérard, Ann. Geophysicae, 9, 571-587, 1991.
Used a one-and-a-half dimensional energy balance model to compare
equilibrium and transient responses of the atmosphere to greenhouse trace gases,
over the period 1850-2050. Total surface temperature increases by 2050 were
respectively 3.70° C and 1.57° C for the equilibrium and transient
cases. The planned global reduction of CFC emissions may decrease warming by
more than 6% in 2050.
"Global Warming: Natural or Anthropogenic," L.P Bédard
(Dept. de Géologie, Univ. de Montréal, C.P. 6128, Montréal,
Qué. H3C 3J7, Can.), B. Lapointe, Geoscience Canada, 18(3),
p. 99, Sep. 1991. Introduces the following papers, presented at a symposium held
at the Université du Québec á Chicoutimi. Participants
concluded it is not yet possible to determine if climatic warming is occurring,
or whether there are human influences at this time.
"The Geologic Record of Glaciation: Relevance to the Climatic History
of Earth," G.M. Young (Dept. Geol., Univ. Western Ontario, London, Ont. N6A
5B7), 100-108. In the short term, the "Little Ice Age" climatic cycle
suggests warming for the next 1,000 years. Anthropogenic contribution to the
greenhouse effect should enhance the short-term warming trend.
"Vers des Modèles Couplés Océan-Atmosphère,"
D. Gilbert (Inst. M. Lamntagne, CP 1000, Mont-Joli, Qué. G5H 3Z4),
109-110. In French. Discusses the nature of ocean-atmosphere interaction, and
some of the weaknesses of climate models.
"A Geological Perspective on Climatic Change: Computer Simulation of
Ancient Climates," P.J. Fawcett (Dept. Geosci., Pennsylvania State Univ.,
Univ. Pk. PA 16802), E.J. Barron, 111-117. Gives two examples of sensitivity
experiments in which one geologic factor (such as CO2) is varied and results are
compared with the geologic record.
"Climate Variability and the Atlantic Ocean," A.L. Gordon
(Lamont-Doherty Geolog. Observ., Palisades NY 10964), S.E. Zebiak, K. Bryan,
Eos, Apr. 14, 1992.
Explains in detail the NOAA Atlantic Climate Change Program, a joint project
of atmospheric and oceanic scientists involving analysis of historic data, its
interpretation using models, and long-term monitoring.
New journal: The Ocean-Atmosphere System, K. Katsaros,
Ed.-in-Chief. Free sample available from Gordon and Breach, Marketing Dept., POB
786 Cooper Sta., New York NY 10276, or POB 90, Reading, Berkshire RG1 8JL, UK.
Represents an expanded scope for Ocean-Air Interactions; will cover
theoretical, observational and modeling studies of the interlinked processes
which govern our present and future climate.
Guide to Publishers
Index of Abbreviations