February 28, 2007
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Global Climate Change Digest
A Guide to Information on Greenhouse Gases and Ozone Depletion
Published July 1988 through June 1999
FROM VOLUME 5, NUMBER 6, JUNE 1992
Two items from J. Clim., 5(4), Apr. 1992:
"Meridionally Propagating Interannual-to-Interdecadal Variability in a
Linear Ocean-Atmosphere Model," V.M. Mehta (NASA-Goddard, Greenbelt MD
20771), 330-342. Oscillation periods, travel times, and meridional structures of
surface pressure perturbations in a linearized primitive equation model were
comparable to corresponding observed features.
"Comparison of General Circulation Model and Observed Regional
Climates: Daily and Seasonal Variability," D.A. Portman (Atmos. Environ.
Res. Inc., 840 Memorial Dr., Cambridge MA 02139), W.-C. Wang, T.R. Karl,
543-553. Demonstrates two different approaches for comparing output of
individual GCM grid boxes with local station observations, using the NCAR
"Global and Continental Water Balance in a GCM," G. Thomas
(Dept. Geog., Univ. British Columbia, 1984 West Mall, Vancouver V6T 1W5, Can.),
A. Henderson-Sellers, Clim. Change, 20(4), 251-276, Apr. 1992.
Three versions of the NCAR GCM, differing mainly in spatial resolution and the
representation of surface hydrology, are compared against available continental
"A Parameterization of Ice Cloud Optical Properties for Climate
Models," E.E. Ebert (Bur. Meteor. Res. Ctr., GPO Box 1289K, Melbourne, Vic.
3001, Australia), J.A. Curry, J. Geophys. Res., 97(D4),
3831-3836, Mar. 20, 1992. The new scheme, with five spectral intervals each in
the shortwave and the infrared and the capability of varying effective radius
and ice water path independently, is applied to cirrus clouds.
"Statistical Validation of GCM-Simulated Climates for the United
States Great Lakes and the CIS Emba and Ural River Basins," V. Privalsky
(Inst. Appl. Astron., USSR Acad. Sci., Zheanovskaya 8, St. Petersburg 197042,
Russia), T.E. Croley, Stochastic Hydrol. Hydraul., 6(1), 69-80,
Mar. 1992. Maximum entropy spectral analysis is used to compare GFDL model
output with data time series from the respective regions of the U.S. and the
Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS).
Two items from Clim. Dynamics, 7(2), Mar. 1992:
"Equilibrium Ice Sheet Scaling in Climate Modeling," M. Ya
Verbitsky (Dept. Geol. Geophys., Yale Univ., POB 6666, New Haven CT 06511),
105-110. A set of simple formulas related to ice sheet evolution is derived from
the dynamic and thermodynamic equations and used to estimate the potential sea
level change due to greenhouse warming.
"A 1951-80 Global Land Precipitation Climatology for the Evaluation of
General Circulation Models," M. Hulme (Climatic Res. Unit., Univ. E.
Anglia, Norwich NR4 7TJ, UK), 57-72. To remedy weaknesses of previous
evaluations of model precipitation fields, a climatology is designed
specifically for model evaluation.
"Regional-Scale Climate Prediction from the GISS GCM," B.C.
Hewitson (Dept. Geog., Pennsylvania State Univ., Univ. Pk. PA 16802), R.G.
Crane, Global Planet. Change, 5(3), 249-267, Mar. 1992.
Demonstrates that the Goddard Institute model simulates present-day sea
level pressure accurately over the U.S., but temperatures show large regional
biases. Application of a transfer function (based on observed data) that relates
pressure and temperature distributions permits the derivation of a more accurate
temperature field from the model's pressure field. The technique is applicable
to doubled CO2 experiments.
"Radiative Forcing and Greenhouse Effect Due to the Atmospheric
Trace Gases, G.Y. Shi (Acad. Sinica, Inst. Atmos. Phys., Beijing 100029, PRC),
Sci. in China--Ser. B, 35(2), 217-229, Feb. 1992. (In English)
Develops an advanced radiative-convective model and uses it to examine the
relationship between radiative forcing and various trace gases. Shows that
proposed CFC substitutes have considerable global warming potential, and that
feedback processes within the climate system are important.
Three items from Clim. Dynamics, 7(1), Feb. 1992:
"An Upper Ocean General Circulation Model for Climate Studies: Global
Simulation with Seasonal Cycle," C.W. Yuen et al., L.A. Mysak (Ctr. Clim. &
Global Change Res., McGill Univ., Montréal, Qué. H3A 2K6, Can.),
1-18. Presents a two-and-a-half layer upper ocean model with relatively coarse
horizontal resolution (4° latitude by 5° longitude). Simulations
give realistic heat transport and time rate of change of heat storage, although
the coarse resolution leads to errors near coasts and in weak currents.
"Arctic Radiation Deficit and Climate Variability," H.-F. Graf (M.
Planck Inst. Meteor., Bundesstr. 55, W-2000 Hamburg 13, Ger.), 19-28.
Experiments with the ECMWF GCM show that the radiation deficit at high latitudes
known to result from large volcanic eruptions causes climatic anomalies at lower
latitudes as well.
"Linear Simulation of the Stationary Eddy Response of a General
Circulation Model to a Doubling of Atmospheric CO2," P. Siegmund (Roy.
Neth. Meteor. Inst., POB 201, NL-3730 AE De Bilt, Netherlands), 29-37. A GCM
scenario was simulated with a linear steady state model responding to anomalies
in diabatic heating, and mountain and transient eddy effects. Results were only
in partial agreement, with poor agreement in the Southern Hemisphere.
"A Comprehensive Radiation Scheme for Numerical Weather Prediction
Models with Potential Applications in Climate Simulations," B. Ritter
(Deutsch Wetterdienst, Frankfurter Str. 135, W-6050 Offenbach, Ger.), J.F.
Geleyn, Monthly Weather Rev., 120(2), 303-325, Feb. 1992. The
scheme is based on the solution of the delta-two-stream version of the radiative
transfer equation and permits extremely flexible treatment of clouds.
Computation cost varies only linearly with the number of atmospheric model
layers, compared to quadratic dependence for some "emissivity-type"
"A Parameterisation of the Effective Radius of Ice-Free Clouds for
Use in Global Climate Models," K.N. Böwer (Dept. Pure & Appl.
Phys., UMIST, POB 88, Manchester M60 1QD, UK), T.W. Choularton, Atmos. Res.,
27(4), 305-339, Feb. 1992. Suggests improvements based on widespread
observations over continents and oceans.
"Transient Responses of a Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere Model to Gradual
Changes of Atmospheric CO2. Part II: Seasonal Response," S. Manabe (GFDL,
Princeton Univ., POB 308, Princeton NJ 08542), M.J. Spelman, R.J. Stouffer, J.
Clim., 5(2), 105-126, Feb. 1992.
The increase of surface air temperature in response to a gradual CO2
increase is at a maximum over the Arctic Ocean region in late fall and winter,
while Arctic warming is at a minimum in summer. The Antarctic temperature
response is slight because of deep ocean mixing. Soil moisture is reduced during
June-August over most of the Northern Hemisphere, except for an increase on the
Two items from J. Clim., 5(1), Jan. 1992:
"Carbon Dioxide and Climate: Mechanisms of Changes in Cloud,"
J.F.B. Mitchell (Rm. H112, E Division, Meteor. Off., London Rd., Bracknell,
Berkshire RG12 2SZ, UK), W.J. Ingram, 5-21. GCM simulations show an upward shift
of high cloud and a general reduction of free-tropospheric cloud when climate
warms. A diagnosis of GCM response suggests that reduced lower-level cloud
results from the increased depth of vertical motions caused by the upward shift
of atmospheric radiative cooling as specific humidities increase.
"Equilibrium Climate Statistics of a General Circulation Model as a
Function of Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide. Part I: Geographic Distributions of
Primary Variables," R.J. Oglesby (Dept. Geol. Sci., Brown Univ., Box 1846,
Providence RI 02912), B. Saltzman, 66-92. An extended series of simulations
using the NCAR model with CO2 levels of 100-1000 ppm shows that surface
temperature, specific humidity and sea-ice cover are the variables most
sensitive to CO2 changes. Important regional responses are seen even in those
variables with relatively small sensitivity, such as surface pressure and winds.
"A Comparison of GCM Simulations of Arctic Climate," J.E. Walsh
(Dept. Atmos. Sci., Univ. Illinois, Urbana IL 61801), R.G. Crane, Geophys.
Res. Lett., 19(1), 29-32, Jan. 3, 1992. Illustrates key differences
among five model simulations of the fields most relevant to sea ice/ocean
forcing: surface air temperature and sea level pressure. Implications for
transports of salinity are important.
"Recent Advances in Modeling the Ocean Circulation and Its Effect on
Climate," D.L.T. Anderson (Clarendon Lab., Dept. Phys., Univ. Oxford, Parks
Rd., Oxford, UK), J. Willebrand, Rep. Prog. Phys., 55(1), 1-37,
An extensive review noting the recent progress on the interaction of the
tropical ocean and the atmosphere (El Niño). Variations on decadal and
longer time scales, particularly disruptions in thermohaline circulation, remain
a major uncertainty.
"Southeast Australia's Wintertime Precipitation: Sensitivity of
Climate Predictions to Model Resolution," A.J. Pitman (School Earth Sci.,
Macquarie Univ., N. Ryde, NSW 2109, Australia), F. Giorgi, A. Henderson-Sellers,
Aust. Meteor. Mag., 39(1), 21-35, Mar. 1991. Experiments using
versions of the NCAR model show that a mesoscale model embedded within a
coarser-resolution GCM offers potential for regional-scale predictions, but a
more sophisticated land-surface scheme is needed at both scales.
"Theory and Development of a One-Dimensional Time-Dependent Radiative
Convective Climate Model," R.M. MacKay (Dept. Environ. Sci. & Eng.,
Oregon Grad. Inst. Sci. Technol., Beaverton OR 97006), M.A.K. Khalil, Chemosphere,
22(3-4), 383-417, 1991. The model, devised for easy use by others, was
used to simulate the influence on mean global temperature of several trace gases
and volcanic aerosols. Results compare well with the observational record.
"Simulation of Anthropogenic Climate Change Using Combined Global
Models of the Atmosphere and the Ocean--Problems and Ways of Development,"
V.P. Meleshko, Izvestiya Akad. Nauk SSSR Fiz. Atmos. i Okeana, 27(7),
691-723, 1991. In Russian. Reviews the status of climate modeling, particularly
experiments involving the doubling or gradual increase of atmospheric CO2.
Factors leading to performance differences among models are identified.
"Comparison of Radiance Fields Observed by Satellite and Simulated by
the LMD General Circulation Model," W.Y.G. Seze (École Polytech,
CNRS-LMD, F-91128 Palaiseau, France), H. Letreut, M. Desbois, Dyn. Atmos.
Oceans, 16(1-2), 147-165, 1991. A time series of ISCCP data is
compared with a simulation by the Laboratoire de Météorologie
Dynamique (LMD) GCM, in terms of zonal mean values, spatial resolution, and
spectral analysis characteristics.
"Anthropogenic Influence on the Photochemistry and Gas Composition of
the Atmosphere," I.L. Karol, A.A. Kiselev, Meteor. i Gidrol., No.
9, 14-19, 1990. Uses a 1-D, time-dependent radiation-photochemical model to
project the vertical distributions over the next 50 years of several trace gases
(N2O, NOy, CH4, CO, CO2, CFCs).
Guide to Publishers
Index of Abbreviations