February 28, 2007
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Global Climate Change Digest
A Guide to Information on Greenhouse Gases and Ozone Depletion
Published July 1988 through June 1999
FROM VOLUME 5, NUMBER 3, MARCH 1992
"Multi Wavelength Measurements of Atmospheric Turbidity and
Determination of the Fluctuations in Total Ozone over Antarctica," R. Singh
(Radio Sci. Div., Nat. Physical Lab., New Delhi 110012, India), P.K. Pasricha et
al., Atmos. Environ., 26A(4), 525-530, 1992.
Sun photometer measurements were made at 310, 368 and 500 nm during several
Indian expeditions to Antarctica, and at 368 and 500 nm over the ocean on a
cruise to one of the expeditions. Optical depth and turbidity due to atmospheric
haze aerosols were computed. The wavelength 310 nm, towards the upper limit of
the UV-B band that is highly absorbed, is best suited for monitoring
fluctuations in total ozone.
"More Rapid Polar Ozone Depletion through the Reaction of HOCl with
HCl on Polar Stratospheric Clouds," M.J. Prather (NASA Goddard Inst. Space
Studies, 2880 Broadway, New York NY 10025), Nature, 355(6360),
534-537, Feb. 6, 1992.
Uses a chemical model to show that this reaction plays a critical part in
polar ozone loss, by rapidly converting HCl to ClOx. As alternative sources of
N-containing oxidants have been converted in late autumn to inactive HNO3 by
known reactions on sulfate aerosol, this reaction becomes the most important
pathway for releasing the stratospheric chlorine that enters the polar night as
Two items from J. Geophys. Res., 97(D1), Jan. 20, 1992:
"SAGE II Stratospheric Density and Temperature Retrieval Experiment,"
P.-H. Wang (Sci. Technol. Corp., POB 7390, Hampton VA 23666), M.P. McCormick et
The retrieval analysis of solar occultation measurements described involves
two steps, one of which inverts the concentration of air molecules, aerosols,
ozone and NO2 from the derived atmospheric extinction at five wavelengths.
"Comparison of 2-D Model Simulations of Ozone and Nitrous Oxide at High
Latitudes with Stratospheric Measurements," M.H. Proffitt (Aeronomy Lab.,
NOAA, 325 Broadway, Boulder CO 80303), S. Solomon, M. Loewenstein, 939-944.
Evaluates a linear reference relationship between O3 and N2O that has been
used to estimate polar winter O3 loss from aircraft data, by comparing it with a
model simulation and with satellite measurements. The relationship holds for
winter, but is likely to be inappropriate in other seasons.
"Two items from Geophys. Res. Lett., 19(1), Jan. 3,
"Laboratory Measurements of Direct Ozone Loss on Ice and Doped-Ice
Surfaces," E.J. Dlugokencky (CMDL, NOAA, R/E/AL2, 325 Broadway, Boulder CO
80303), A.R. Ravishankara, 41-44. Results using ice and solid solutions of
nitric acid, sulfuric acid and sodium sulfite show that direct ozone loss on
stratospheric particles is not important.
"In Situ Stratospheric Measurements of CH4, 13CH4, N2O and OC18O Using
the BLISS Tunable Diode Laser Spectrometer," C.R. Webster (Jet Propulsion
Lab., 4800 Oak Grove Dr., Pasadena CA 91109), R.D. May, 45-48.
Two items from ibid., 18(12), Dec. 1991:
"Measurements of ClO and O3 from 21° N to 61° N in
the Lower Stratosphere during February 1988: Implications for Heterogeneous
Chemistry," J.C. King (Dept. Meteorology, Pennsylvania State Univ., Univ.
Pk. PA 16802), W.H. Brune et al., 2273-2276.
Examines the possibility that the decadal decline in stratospheric ozone at
northern midlatitudes is caused by the heterogeneous reaction of N2O5 on sulfate
aerosols, by comparing observations to a 2-D model. Results show that reactive
chlorine is being enhanced and heterogeneous chemistry is a likely cause, but
the details of the heterogeneous chemistry and other possible chemical
mechanisms need to be explored.
"Recent Trends in Stratospheric Total Ozone: Implications of Dynamical
and El Chichón Perturbations," S. Chandra (NASA-Goddard, Greenbelt
MD 20771), R.S. Stolarski, 2277-2280.
An apparent decrease in total ozone of 5-6% during the winter of 1982-83
following the eruption of El Chichón seen in reprocessed Nimbus-7 TOMS
data is largely explained by the quasi-biennial oscillation; at most 2-4% of the
decrease can be attributed to El Chichón. Interannual variability and
planetary wave activity can introduce apparent seasonal trends that could affect
assessment of total ozone changes caused by chemical perturbations.
Three items from J. Geophys. Res., 96(D12), Dec. 20,
"Modeling the February 1990 Polar Stratospheric Cloud Event and Its
Potential Impact on the Northern Hemisphere Ozone Content," L. Lefèvre
(Météo-France, Ctr. Nat. Recherches Météorol., 42
Ave. Coriolis, 31057 Toulouse Cedex, France), L.P. Riishojgaard et al.,
Balloon-borne and ground-based instruments indicate that a major type II
polar stratospheric cloud (PSC) event occurred above Scandinavia in February
1990 at temperatures as low as -90° C. Short integrations were carried out
at high spatial resolution with the "Emeraude" GCM, with emphasis on a
localized area downstream from the PSC believed to be the most chemically active
air. The largest discrepancy between total ozone forecast and TOMS data occurs
at this location, suggesting the possibility that considerable ozone is
destroyed subsequent to formation of PSC.
"Spectroscopic Measurement of HO2, H1O2 and OH in the Stratosphere,"
J.H. Park (Atmos. Sci., NASA-Langley, Hampton VA 23665), B. Carli,
"The Influence of Dynamics on Two-Dimensional Model Results:
Simulations of 14C and Stratospheric Aircraft NOx Injections," C.H. Jackman
(Lab. Atmos., NASA-Goddard, Greenbelt MD 20771), A.R. Douglass et al.,
Three different dynamical formulations, differing in the advective component
of the stratosphere to troposphere exchange rate, were used to simulate total
ozone and 14C amounts after nuclear tests in the early 1960s, and NOx injections
from a proposed fleet of stratospheric aircraft and their effect on ozone.
Results show the difficulty of simultaneously modeling constituents with
different altitude and latitude dependencies, and that ozone loss from NOx
injections is sensitive to the exchange rate used.
Two items from J. Geophys. Res., 96(D11), Nov. 20, 1991:
"Trends in Total Ozone at Toronto between 1960 and 1991," J.B.
Kerr (Atmos. Environ. Serv., 4905 Dufferin St., Downsview, Ont. M3H 5T4, Can.),
Ground-based measurements show total ozone decreased by about 4.2% during
the 1980s because of a decrease in the late winter-early spring season of about
7.0%, consistent with revised TOMS satellite data. The trend is distinct from
previous fluctuations, which were presumably due to natural variability, and
occurs at other stations.
"Intercomparison of Total Ozone Data Measured with Dobson and Brewer
Spectrophotometers at Uccle (Belgium) from January 1984 to March 1991, Including
Zenith Sky Observations," H. De Backer (Belgian Meteor. Inst., Ave.
Circulaire 3, B-1180 Brussels, Belg.), D. De Muer, 20,711-20,719.
Although seven years of quasi-simultaneous observations reveal a significant
relative drift between the two instruments of 0.1% per year, this disappears
when a strong, downward SO2 trend at the site is accounted for. The question of
SO2 tendency must be addressed in any trend analysis using Dobson total ozone
Three items from Can. J. Phys., 69(8-9), Aug.-Sep. 1991:
"Inferring Middle Atmospheric Ozone Height Profiles from Ground-Based
Measurements of Molecular Oxygen Emission Rates. I: Model Description and
Sensitivity to Inputs," R.J. Sica (Dept. Phys., Univ. Western Ontario,
London, Ont. N6A 3K7, Can.), 1069-1077. Analysis of a model for the inversion of
twilight emission-rate measurements for two spectral bands shows that the method
can successfully determine the shape but not the absolute value of the O3
"Lidar Measurements of the Middle Atmosphere," A.I. Carswell
(Dept. Phys., York Univ., 4700 Keele St., N. York, Ont. M3J 1P3, Can.), S.R. Pal
et al., 1076-1086. Presents measurements of stratospheric aerosols and ozone and
profiles of density and temperature from a new lidar facility.
"Rapid Motion of the 1989 Arctic Ozone Crater as Viewed with TOMS Data,"
F.E. Bunn (Ph.D. Associates Inc., Kinsmen Bldg., 4700 Keele St., N. York, Ont.
M3J 1P3, Can.), F.W. Thirkettle, W.F.J. Evans, 1087-1092.
Total ozone values from the NIMBUS-7 TOMS instrument show that an Arctic
ozone crater (a thinning of the ozone layer) formed in late January when the
vortex moved away from the pole to over Scandinavia, later moving over Toronto
and then near Edmonton. A similar, unexpected crater was present in the
Antarctic fall, on March 1989. These phenomena were mainly produced by dynamic
uplift, but there may have been ozone depletion as well because of reduced
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