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Global Climate Change DigestArchives of the
Global Climate Change Digest

A Guide to Information on Greenhouse Gases and Ozone Depletion
Published July 1988 through June 1999



Item #d92nov41

"Climatic Change Due to Land Surface Alterations," S.H. Franchito (Inst. Nacl. Pesquisas Espaciais (inpe), Sao José dos Campos, SP, Brazil), V.B. Rao, Clim. Change, 22(1), 1-34, Sep. 1992.

A primitive-equations, global, zonally averaged climate model including biofeedback mechanisms is developed for conducting experiments involving deforestation, desertification and irrigation. Deforestation and desertification lead to increased temperature while the opposite occurs with irrigation, but in all cases changes in evapotranspiration overcome the effect of surface albedo modification.

Item #d92nov42

"Sensitivity of Terrestrial Carbon Storage to CO2-Induced Climate Change: Comparison of Four Scenarios Based on General Circulation Models," T.M. Smith (Dept. Environ. Sci., Univ. Virginia, Charlottesville VA 22903), Clim. Change, 21(4), 367-384, Aug. 1992.

Estimates using Holdridge Life-Zone Classification show an increase in the area occupied by forests for all four scenarios. Terrestrial C storage increases 0.4-9.5% above estimates for present conditions, representing a potential reduction of 4-85 ppm in elevated atmospheric CO2.

Item #d92nov43

"Computationally Efficient Approximations to Stratiform Cloud Microphysics Parameterization," S.J. Ghan (Battelle Mem. Inst., Pacific Northwest Labs., POB 999, Richland WA 99352), R.C. Easter, Mon. Wea. Rev., 120(8), 1572-1582, Aug. 1992.

By diagnosing rather than predicting rain and snow concentrations and by assuming instantaneous melting of snow, computational time steps can be increased tenfold for GCMs, allowing bulk cloud microphysical parameterizations for multiyear simulations. However, vertical resolution must be considerably finer (100-200 m) than currently employed.

Item #d92nov44

Comment and reply on "Can Existing Climate Models be Used to Study Anthropogenic Changes in Tropical Cyclone Climate," Geophys. Res. Lett., 19(14), 1523-1526, July 24, 1992.

Item #d92nov45

"Modelling the Effects of Albedo Change Associated with Tropical Deforestation," M.F. Mylne (U.K. Meteor. Off., Brackness, Berks, U.K.), P.R. Rowntree, Clim. Change, 21(3), 317-343, July 1992.

Reviews the effects in climate models of changes in albedo and soil moisture expected to follow from tropical deforestation. Examines major results from experiments involving forested or grass-covered regions, at different albedo levels for South America and Africa. In both locations decreased rainfall is projected.

Item #d92nov46

Two items from J. Geophys. Res., 97(D11), July 20, 1992:

"Longwave Band Model for Thermal Radiation in Climate Studies," B.P. Briegleb (NCAR, POB 3000, Boulder CO 80307), 11,475-11,485.

Presents a model using 100 cm-1 resolution that can easily incorporate many trace gases. Application in the NCAR climate model shows that omission of minor bands of CO2 and O3, of other trace gases, or of nonblack surface emissivity effects, leads to a significant bias in tropical clear-sky outgoing long-wave radiation.

"A Study of Broadband Parameterizations of the Solar Radiative Interactions wtih Water Vapor and Water Drops," V. Ramaswamy (Atmos. Sci., Princeton Univ., Princeton NJ 08542), S.M. Freidenreich, 11,487-11,512.

Presents a new parameterization accurate to within about 30% over a wide range of overcast sky conditions, including solar zenith angles and cloud characteristics. Demonstrates the potential inaccuracies that can result from the use of broadband methods in GCMs.

Item #d92nov47

"Building Earth System Models," Ambio, 21(4), 329, June 1992. Explains the role of the IGBP Task Force on Global Analysis, Interpretation and Modeling.

Item #d92nov48

"Autoregressive Models Not Sensitive to Initial Conditions," H.L. Gray, W.A. Woodward; "Reply," A.A. Tsonis, Eos, pp. 267-268, June 23, 1992. Counters previous conclusions of Tsonis (1991), which relate to the degree of confidence that can be ascribed to GCM forecasts because of the uncertainty in initial conditions.

Item #d92nov49

"A Two-Dimensional Ocean Model for Long-Term Climatic Simulations: Stability and Coupling to Atmospheric and Sea Ice Models," L.D.D. Harvey, J. Geophys. Res., 97(C6), 9435-9453, June 15, 1992.

Results of a highly idealized latitude-depth model of the deep ocean suggest that the effects of increasing greenhouse gases will swamp possible surface heating perturbations due to changes in oceanic circulation. Because of the extreme sensitivity of the oceanic flow field to variations in precipitation and evaporation, it may not be possible to accurately project regional climate change in the near term, if at all.

Item #d92nov50

"A 2 X CO2 Climate Change Scenario over Europe Generated Using a Limited Area Model Nested in a General Circulation Model," J. Geophys. Res., 97(D9), June 20, 1992.

"1. Present-Day Seasonal Climate Simulation," M.R. Marinucci (Dip. Fisica, Univ. Studi, L'Aquila, Italy), F. Giorgi, 9989-10,009. Evaluates a simulation produced by versions of the NCAR GCM and NCAR/Pennsylvania State University mesoscale model, as a control for the experiment of part 2.

"2. Climate Change Scenario," F. Giorgi (NCAR, POB 3000, Boulder CO 80307), M.R. Marinucci, G. Visconti, 10,011-10,028. Overall, doubled CO2 produces warming over Europe in all seasons in the range of 1.5° -7° . Results emphasize the inadequacy of simply interpolating coarse resolution GCM output to obtain estimates of local changes in surface climatic variables for impact assessments.

Item #d92nov51

"On the Transient Response of a Simple Coupled Climate System," K.-Y. Kim (Applied Res. Corp., 305 Arguello Dr., College Sta. TX 77840), G.R. North, J. Huang, ibid., 10,069-10,081.

Presents quasi-analytical solutions to a class of coupled atmosphere-ocean models for time-dependent ramp- and step-forced climate changes, which produce dissimilar results. Land surfaces lead ocean surfaces in heating up, suggesting the possible basis for a robust signature of greenhouse forcing.

Item #d92nov52

Two items from Global Planet. Change, 5(4), 1992:

"Assessment of NCAR General Circulation Model Precipitation in Comparison with Observations," P. Schultz (Clim. Anal. Ctr., Diagnostic Branch, 5200 Auth Rd., Camp Springs MD 20746), E.J. Barron, J. LeRoy Sloan II, 269-310. Six different present-day climate experiments are compared to observed data, revealing potential sources of regional errors for applications such as elevated CO2 experiments.

"A Comparison of GCM-Simulated and Observed Mean January and July Precipitation," D.R. Legates (Dept. Geog., Univ. Oklahoma, Norman OK 73019), C.J. Willmott, 345-363. A high-resolution precipitation climatology is used to evaluate the precipitation simulations of the GFDL, OSU, GISS and UKMO GCMs. Regional errors are commonly quite large, which suggests cautious use of current-generation GCM prognostications for local- and regional-scale climate change studies.

Item #d92nov53

"Delta-Eddington Approximation for Solar Radiation in the NCAR Community Climate Model," B.P. Briegleb (NCAR, POB 3000, Boulder CO 80307), J. Geophys. Res., 97(D7), 7603-7612, May 20, 1992. The approximation developed covers 18 spectral intervals spanning the solar spectrum from 0.2 to 0.5 micro-m, handles water vapor and droplets, and simulates partial cloud cover and cloud overlap.

Item #d92nov54

"The Parallel Scalability of the Spectral Transform Method," I. Foster (Math. Div., Argonne Nat. Lab., 9700 S. Cass Ave., Argonne IL 60439), W. Gropp, R. Stevens, Mon. Wea. Rev., 120(5), 835-850, May 1992. Evaluates the suitability of the spectral transform approach for GCMs designed to run on large-scale parallel computers, finding that projected teraflop computers will have difficulty achieving the throughput necessary for long-term regional climate studies.

Item #d92nov55

"Unforced Decadal Fluctuations in a Coupled Model of the Atmosphere and Ocean Mixed Layer," T.P. Barnett (Clim. Res. Div., Scripps Inst. Oceanog., La Jolla CA 92093), A.D. Del Genio, R.A. Reudy, J. Geophys. Res., 97(C5), 7341-7345, May 15, 1992.

Investigates the nature of low-frequency variability of global average temperature in a 100-year control run of a model used for greenhouse gas simulations. Models with dynamical limitations can produce significant long-term variability; only with thorough physical diagnosis can reliability of the model results be judged.

Item #d92nov56

"A Solar Radiation Model for Use in Climate Studies," M.D. Chou (Atmos. Lab., Code 913, NASA-Goddard, Greenbelt MD 20771), J. Atmos. Sci., 49(9), 762-772, May 1, 1992.

The model includes absorption and scattering due to ozone, water vapor, oxygen, CO2 and aerosols, and Rayleigh scattering. Fluxes and heating rates compare to within a few percent with results using high spectral resolution and multiple-scattering calculations.

Item #d92nov57

"Cloud-Radiation Feedbacks in a General Circulation Model and Their Dependence on Cloud Modelling Assumptions," Z.-X. Li (Lab. Météor. Dynamique du CNRS 24, rue Lhomond, F-75231 Paris Cedex 05, France), H. Le Treut, Clim. Dynamics, 7(3), 133-139, Apr. 1992.

Explores reasons why the GCM of the Laboratoire de Météorologie Dynamique is more sensitive to a global perturbation of sea surface temperatures than most other models. Results have implications for climate sensitivity studies.

Item #d92nov58

"A Perturbation Simulation of CO2 Uptake in an Ocean General Circulation Model," J.L. Sarmiento (Atmos. & Oceanic Sci., Princeton Univ., Princeton NJ 08544), J.C. Orr, U. Siegenthaler, J. Geophys. Res., 97(C3), 3621-3645, Mar. 15, 1992.

Atmospheric pCO2 was prescribed for the period 1750-1990 using the combined Siple ice core and Mauna Loa records. For 1980-1989, the calculated average flux of CO2 into the ocean, added to the observed atmospheric increase, totals 5.1 Gt yr-1. This is comparable to the estimated fossil CO2 production, implying that other sources and sinks (such as deforestation, enhanced growth of land biota, and changes in the ocean C cycle) must be approximately in balance.

Item #d92nov59

"An Energy-Salinity Balance Climate Model: Water Vapor Transport as a Cause of Changes in the Global Thermohaline Circulation," H. Wang (Dept. Geol. Sci., Northwestern Univ., Evanston IL 60208), G.E. Birchfield, J. Geophys. Res., 97(C2), 2335-2346, Feb. 15, 1992.

Model experiments show that global thermohaline circulation exhibits bimodal equilibria, in the high-latitude North Atlantic, as a consequence of imbalances in the rates of change of advective and eddy freshwater fluxes, but that the present circulation is dynamically stable.

Item #d92nov60

"A New Approach for Coupling a Limited Area Model to a GCM for Regional Climate Simulations," H. Kida (Meteor. Res. Inst., 1-1 Nagamine, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305, Japan), T. Koide et al., J. Meteor. Soc. Japan, 69(6), 723-728, Dec. 1991. Uses a spectral boundary in wave-number space rather than a lateral boundary in real space. Time integration was very smooth over a period of a month, and mesoscale features well simulated.

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