February 28, 2007
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Global Climate Change Digest
A Guide to Information on Greenhouse Gases and Ozone Depletion
Published July 1988 through June 1999
FROM VOLUME 5, NUMBER 11, NOVEMBER 1992
"Climatic Change Due to Land Surface Alterations," S.H.
Franchito (Inst. Nacl. Pesquisas Espaciais (inpe), Sao José dos Campos,
SP, Brazil), V.B. Rao, Clim. Change, 22(1), 1-34, Sep. 1992.
A primitive-equations, global, zonally averaged climate model including
biofeedback mechanisms is developed for conducting experiments involving
deforestation, desertification and irrigation. Deforestation and desertification
lead to increased temperature while the opposite occurs with irrigation, but in
all cases changes in evapotranspiration overcome the effect of surface albedo
"Sensitivity of Terrestrial Carbon Storage to CO2-Induced Climate
Change: Comparison of Four Scenarios Based on General Circulation Models,"
T.M. Smith (Dept. Environ. Sci., Univ. Virginia, Charlottesville VA 22903), Clim.
Change, 21(4), 367-384, Aug. 1992.
Estimates using Holdridge Life-Zone Classification show an increase in the
area occupied by forests for all four scenarios. Terrestrial C storage increases
0.4-9.5% above estimates for present conditions, representing a potential
reduction of 4-85 ppm in elevated atmospheric CO2.
"Computationally Efficient Approximations to Stratiform Cloud
Microphysics Parameterization," S.J. Ghan (Battelle Mem. Inst., Pacific
Northwest Labs., POB 999, Richland WA 99352), R.C. Easter, Mon. Wea. Rev.,
120(8), 1572-1582, Aug. 1992.
By diagnosing rather than predicting rain and snow concentrations and by
assuming instantaneous melting of snow, computational time steps can be
increased tenfold for GCMs, allowing bulk cloud microphysical parameterizations
for multiyear simulations. However, vertical resolution must be considerably
finer (100-200 m) than currently employed.
Comment and reply on "Can Existing Climate Models be Used to Study
Anthropogenic Changes in Tropical Cyclone Climate," Geophys. Res. Lett.,
19(14), 1523-1526, July 24, 1992.
"Modelling the Effects of Albedo Change Associated with Tropical
Deforestation," M.F. Mylne (U.K. Meteor. Off., Brackness, Berks, U.K.),
P.R. Rowntree, Clim. Change, 21(3), 317-343, July 1992.
Reviews the effects in climate models of changes in albedo and soil moisture
expected to follow from tropical deforestation. Examines major results from
experiments involving forested or grass-covered regions, at different albedo
levels for South America and Africa. In both locations decreased rainfall is
Two items from J. Geophys. Res., 97(D11), July 20, 1992:
"Longwave Band Model for Thermal Radiation in Climate Studies,"
B.P. Briegleb (NCAR, POB 3000, Boulder CO 80307), 11,475-11,485.
Presents a model using 100 cm-1 resolution that can easily incorporate many
trace gases. Application in the NCAR climate model shows that omission of minor
bands of CO2 and O3, of other trace gases, or of nonblack surface emissivity
effects, leads to a significant bias in tropical clear-sky outgoing long-wave
"A Study of Broadband Parameterizations of the Solar Radiative
Interactions wtih Water Vapor and Water Drops," V. Ramaswamy (Atmos. Sci.,
Princeton Univ., Princeton NJ 08542), S.M. Freidenreich, 11,487-11,512.
Presents a new parameterization accurate to within about 30% over a wide
range of overcast sky conditions, including solar zenith angles and cloud
characteristics. Demonstrates the potential inaccuracies that can result from
the use of broadband methods in GCMs.
"Building Earth System Models," Ambio, 21(4),
329, June 1992. Explains the role of the IGBP Task Force on Global Analysis,
Interpretation and Modeling.
"Autoregressive Models Not Sensitive to Initial Conditions,"
H.L. Gray, W.A. Woodward; "Reply," A.A. Tsonis, Eos, pp.
267-268, June 23, 1992. Counters previous conclusions of Tsonis (1991), which
relate to the degree of confidence that can be ascribed to GCM forecasts because
of the uncertainty in initial conditions.
"A Two-Dimensional Ocean Model for Long-Term Climatic Simulations:
Stability and Coupling to Atmospheric and Sea Ice Models," L.D.D. Harvey,
J. Geophys. Res., 97(C6), 9435-9453, June 15, 1992.
Results of a highly idealized latitude-depth model of the deep ocean suggest
that the effects of increasing greenhouse gases will swamp possible surface
heating perturbations due to changes in oceanic circulation. Because of the
extreme sensitivity of the oceanic flow field to variations in precipitation and
evaporation, it may not be possible to accurately project regional climate
change in the near term, if at all.
"A 2 X CO2 Climate Change Scenario over Europe Generated Using a
Limited Area Model Nested in a General Circulation Model," J. Geophys.
Res., 97(D9), June 20, 1992.
"1. Present-Day Seasonal Climate Simulation," M.R. Marinucci (Dip.
Fisica, Univ. Studi, L'Aquila, Italy), F. Giorgi, 9989-10,009. Evaluates a
simulation produced by versions of the NCAR GCM and NCAR/Pennsylvania State
University mesoscale model, as a control for the experiment of part 2.
"2. Climate Change Scenario," F. Giorgi (NCAR, POB 3000, Boulder
CO 80307), M.R. Marinucci, G. Visconti, 10,011-10,028. Overall, doubled CO2
produces warming over Europe in all seasons in the range of
1.5° -7° . Results emphasize the inadequacy of simply interpolating
coarse resolution GCM output to obtain estimates of local changes in surface
climatic variables for impact assessments.
"On the Transient Response of a Simple Coupled Climate System,"
K.-Y. Kim (Applied Res. Corp., 305 Arguello Dr., College Sta. TX 77840), G.R.
North, J. Huang, ibid., 10,069-10,081.
Presents quasi-analytical solutions to a class of coupled atmosphere-ocean
models for time-dependent ramp- and step-forced climate changes, which produce
dissimilar results. Land surfaces lead ocean surfaces in heating up, suggesting
the possible basis for a robust signature of greenhouse forcing.
Two items from Global Planet. Change, 5(4), 1992:
"Assessment of NCAR General Circulation Model Precipitation in
Comparison with Observations," P. Schultz (Clim. Anal. Ctr., Diagnostic
Branch, 5200 Auth Rd., Camp Springs MD 20746), E.J. Barron, J. LeRoy Sloan II,
269-310. Six different present-day climate experiments are compared to observed
data, revealing potential sources of regional errors for applications such as
elevated CO2 experiments.
"A Comparison of GCM-Simulated and Observed Mean January and July
Precipitation," D.R. Legates (Dept. Geog., Univ. Oklahoma, Norman OK
73019), C.J. Willmott, 345-363. A high-resolution precipitation climatology is
used to evaluate the precipitation simulations of the GFDL, OSU, GISS and UKMO
GCMs. Regional errors are commonly quite large, which suggests cautious use of
current-generation GCM prognostications for local- and regional-scale climate
"Delta-Eddington Approximation for Solar Radiation in the NCAR
Community Climate Model," B.P. Briegleb (NCAR, POB 3000, Boulder CO 80307),
J. Geophys. Res., 97(D7), 7603-7612, May 20, 1992. The
approximation developed covers 18 spectral intervals spanning the solar spectrum
from 0.2 to 0.5 micro-m, handles water vapor and droplets, and simulates partial
cloud cover and cloud overlap.
"The Parallel Scalability of the Spectral Transform Method," I.
Foster (Math. Div., Argonne Nat. Lab., 9700 S. Cass Ave., Argonne IL 60439), W.
Gropp, R. Stevens, Mon. Wea. Rev., 120(5), 835-850, May 1992.
Evaluates the suitability of the spectral transform approach for GCMs designed
to run on large-scale parallel computers, finding that projected teraflop
computers will have difficulty achieving the throughput necessary for long-term
regional climate studies.
"Unforced Decadal Fluctuations in a Coupled Model of the Atmosphere
and Ocean Mixed Layer," T.P. Barnett (Clim. Res. Div., Scripps Inst.
Oceanog., La Jolla CA 92093), A.D. Del Genio, R.A. Reudy, J. Geophys. Res.,
97(C5), 7341-7345, May 15, 1992.
Investigates the nature of low-frequency variability of global average
temperature in a 100-year control run of a model used for greenhouse gas
simulations. Models with dynamical limitations can produce significant long-term
variability; only with thorough physical diagnosis can reliability of the model
results be judged.
"A Solar Radiation Model for Use in Climate Studies," M.D. Chou
(Atmos. Lab., Code 913, NASA-Goddard, Greenbelt MD 20771), J. Atmos. Sci.,
49(9), 762-772, May 1, 1992.
The model includes absorption and scattering due to ozone, water vapor,
oxygen, CO2 and aerosols, and Rayleigh scattering. Fluxes and heating rates
compare to within a few percent with results using high spectral resolution and
"Cloud-Radiation Feedbacks in a General Circulation Model and Their
Dependence on Cloud Modelling Assumptions," Z.-X. Li (Lab. Météor.
Dynamique du CNRS 24, rue Lhomond, F-75231 Paris Cedex 05, France), H. Le Treut,
Clim. Dynamics, 7(3), 133-139, Apr. 1992.
Explores reasons why the GCM of the Laboratoire de Météorologie
Dynamique is more sensitive to a global perturbation of sea surface temperatures
than most other models. Results have implications for climate sensitivity
"A Perturbation Simulation of CO2 Uptake in an Ocean General
Circulation Model," J.L. Sarmiento (Atmos. & Oceanic Sci., Princeton
Univ., Princeton NJ 08544), J.C. Orr, U. Siegenthaler, J. Geophys. Res.,
97(C3), 3621-3645, Mar. 15, 1992.
Atmospheric pCO2 was prescribed for the period 1750-1990 using the
combined Siple ice core and Mauna Loa records. For 1980-1989, the calculated
average flux of CO2 into the ocean, added to the observed atmospheric increase,
totals 5.1 Gt yr-1. This is comparable to the estimated fossil CO2 production,
implying that other sources and sinks (such as deforestation, enhanced growth of
land biota, and changes in the ocean C cycle) must be approximately in balance.
"An Energy-Salinity Balance Climate Model: Water Vapor Transport as a
Cause of Changes in the Global Thermohaline Circulation," H. Wang (Dept.
Geol. Sci., Northwestern Univ., Evanston IL 60208), G.E. Birchfield, J.
Geophys. Res., 97(C2), 2335-2346, Feb. 15, 1992.
Model experiments show that global thermohaline circulation exhibits bimodal
equilibria, in the high-latitude North Atlantic, as a consequence of imbalances
in the rates of change of advective and eddy freshwater fluxes, but that the
present circulation is dynamically stable.
"A New Approach for Coupling a Limited Area Model to a GCM for
Regional Climate Simulations," H. Kida (Meteor. Res. Inst., 1-1 Nagamine,
Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305, Japan), T. Koide et al., J. Meteor. Soc. Japan,
69(6), 723-728, Dec. 1991. Uses a spectral boundary in wave-number space
rather than a lateral boundary in real space. Time integration was very smooth
over a period of a month, and mesoscale features well simulated.
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Index of Abbreviations