February 28, 2007
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Global Climate Change Digest
A Guide to Information on Greenhouse Gases and Ozone Depletion
Published July 1988 through June 1999
FROM VOLUME 5, NUMBER 9, SEPTEMBER 1992
IMPACTS OF ULTRAVIOLET
"The Relationship between Skin Cancers, Solar Radiation and Ozone
Depletion," J. Moan (Inst. Cancer Res., Montebello, N-0310 Oslo 3, Norway),
A. Dahlback, British J. Cancer, 65(6), 916-921, June 1992.
Although the incidence of cutaneous malignant melanoma increased
several-fold in Norway during 1957-1984, exposure calculated from measured ozone
levels shows that ozone depletion was not a cause. Data on the incidence of
various types of skin cancers in Norway are used to estimate the implications of
a future ozone depletion; for instance, a 10% depletion would cause a 16-18%
increase in the incidence of squamous cell carcinoma.
"A Contribution toward Understanding the Biospherical Significance
of Antarctic Ozone Depletion," D. Lubin (Scripps Inst. Oceanog., La Jolla
CA 92093), B.G. Mitchell et al., J. Geophys. Res., 97(D8),
7817-7828, May 30, 1992.
Presents and interprets measurements of biologically active UV radiation
made during the Austral springs of 1988, 1989 and 1990 in Antarctica, using the
NSF scanning spectroradiometer. Two contrasting biological weighting spectra are
used to estimate biologically relevant doses: a standard one for DNA damage, and
a new one representing the potential for photosynthesis inhibition in Antarctic
"The Effects of Ultraviolet-B Radiation on Loblolly Pine. 2. Growth
of Field-Grown Seedlings," J.H. Sullivan (Dept. Bot., Univ. Maryland,
College Pk. MD 20742), A.H. Teramura, Trees--Structure and Function,
6(3), 115-120, June 1992.
In the first such experiment involving tree species over more than one
growing season, pines from seven seed sources were exposed to irradiances
comparable to those expected from stratospheric ozone reductions of 16% and 25%
over three seasons. Results show that increased UV-B could significantly reduce
the growth of loblolly pine through cumulative effects, and that multiple season
research is essential in studying the potential impact of global change.
"Influence of Photosynthetically Active Radiation and Spectral
Quality on UV-B Induced Polyamine Accumulation in Soybean," G.F. Cramer
(Agric. Res. Ctr., USDA-ARS, Beltsville MD 20705), D.T. Krizek, R.M. Mirecki,
Phytochem., 31(4), 1119-1125, Apr. 1992.
UV-sensitive and UV-insensitive cultivars of soybean were exposed to
irradiance corresponding to a 20% clear-sky decrease in stratospheric ozone,
with a spectrum balanced between red and blue wavelengths. Inhibition of UV-B
stress observed at high PAR may require a balanced spectrum, and may involve
"Impact of Natural Ultraviolet Radiation on Rates of Photosynthesis
and on Specific Marine Phytoplankton Species," E.W. Helbling (Scripps Inst.
Oceanog., La Jolla CA 92093), V. Villafane et al., Marine Ecol.--Progress
Series, 80(1), 89-100, Feb. 1992.
Natural phytoplankton populations from both Antarctic and tropical waters
were exposed to solar radiation. Wavelengths <305 nm (the spectral region
most enhanced under low atmospheric ozone concentrations) accounted for only
15%-20% of the total inhibition due to UV-B. Phytoplankton from tropical waters
showed marked resistance to UV compared to Antarctic phytoplankton.
"A Supplemental Ultraviolet-B Radiation System for Open-Top Field
Chambers," F.L. Booker (Dept. Bot., Box 7632, N. Carolina State Univ.,
Raleigh NC 27695), E.L. Fiscus et al., J. Environ. Qual., 21(1),
56-61, Jan.-Mar. 1992. Analyzes the performance of apparatus designed to assess
the combined effects of ground-level ozone and increased UV-B.
"Ultraviolet-B (280-320 nm) Radiation-Induced Changes in
Photochemical Activities and Polypeptide Components of C-3 and C-4 Chloroplasts,"
G. Kulandaivelu (Sch. Biol. Sci., Madurai Kamaraj Univ., Madurai 625021, Tamil
Nadu, India), N. Nedunchezhian, K. Annamalainathan, Photosynthetica, 25(3),
C3 plants Dolichos, Phaseolus and Triticum were more susceptible to UV-B
inactivation of their photosystem 2 mediated Hill activity than
the C4 plants Amaranthus, Zea mays and Pennisetum. Except for
Amaranthus, the site of UV-B inhibition is at the water oxidation between the
donor sites of DPC and NH2OH.
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