February 28, 2007
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Global Climate Change Digest
A Guide to Information on Greenhouse Gases and Ozone Depletion
Published July 1988 through June 1999
FROM VOLUME 6, NUMBER 4, APRIL 1993
ENERGY POLICY, IMPACTS AND USE
items from Environment, 35(2), Mar. 1993:
Commentary: "Nuclear Energy," B. Wolfe (Gen.
Electric Nuclear Energy Prog., Monte Sereno, Calif.), 2-3.
Although nuclear energy is clearly problematic in the U.S., the
perspective on the problems presented in the following article is
"What Would it Take to Revitalize Nuclear Power in the
United States?" M.G. Morgan (Dept. Eng. & Public Pol.,
Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, Pa.), 6-9, 30-32. Despite
substantial public opposition, nuclear power is being
reconsidered in the U.S. because of greenhouse warming. Discusses
six key problems requiring fundamental changes.
"Hard Habits To Break: Energy Conservation Patterns in
Sweden," R.E. Löfstedt (IIASA, A-2361 Laxenburg, Austria),
10-15, 33-35. Because Sweden's buildings and industries are
already highly energy-efficient, only widespread lifestyle
changes can save significant amounts of energy. Are Swedes
willing to break their energy habits?
New Energy Equation for Developing Countries," N. Lenssen
(Worldwatch Inst., 1776 Mass. Ave. NW, Washington DC 20036), Environ.
Sci. Technol., 27(2), 220-222, Feb. 1993.
The assumption that an expanding energy supply is necessary
for raising standards of living has proved unworkable. Instead,
developing countries must emphasize energy-efficient
technologies, and meet new energy needs with less costly and less
ecologically destructive approaches.
items from Energy Policy, 21(2), Feb. 1993:
"Wither Renewable Energy Sources?" A. Jagadeesh
(Soc. of Sci. for the People, Nellore, India), 98-99. Comments on
the place of hydrogen energy among renewable options, and on
mechanisms for disseminating renewable energy technology to
"External Costs of Electricity Generation," R.
Friedrich (Inst. Energiewirtschaft & Rationelle
Energieanwendung, Hessbrühlstr. 49a, D-7000 Stuttgart-80, Ger.),
A. Voss, 114-122. Challenges the recent estimate by Hohmeyer
which concluded that external costs are of the same order of
magnitude as internal costs. Offers an alternative analysis based
on the situation in Germany.
"CHP Production in Integrated Energy Systems: Examples
from Five Swedish Communities," B. Rydén (Dept. Energy
Conversion, Chalmers Univ. Technol., S-412 96 Göteborg, Swed.),
J. Johnsson, C.-O. Wene, 176-190. Uses the IEA-MARKAL model to
evaluate the role of different technologies in combined heat and
power district heating systems.
from Applied Energy, 44(2), 1993:
"Energy Resources, CO2 Production and Energy
Conservation," P.W. O'Callaghan (Dept. Appl. Energy,
Cranfield Inst. Technol., Cranfield MK43 0AL, UK), 65-91.
Analyzes world reserves of fossil fuels, their projected use, and
subsequent impacts on atmospheric temperature and sea level.
Concludes that at present rates of consumption, fossil fuels will
be exhausted by the year 2050, resulting in substantial
temperature rise. World combustion of fossil fuels must be
reduced by energy management and conservation, and a renewable
energy economy developed.
"Energy and Environmental Management Information
Systems," P.K. Martin (Energy Auditing Agency Ltd., 22
Forum, Rockingham Dr., Milton Keynes MK14 6LY, UK), 175-183.
Explains the computer-based monitoring and targeting (M&T)
systems being used by large U.K. firms, and how they are being
extended to provide integrated energy and environmental
management information systems for monitoring CO2
issue: "The Environmental Impacts of Electricity
Generation," IEE Proc.-A: Sci., Measurement &
Technol., 140(1), Jan. 1993. In addition to the five
papers listed here, nine others deal with such topics as
renewable energy sources, health risks, planning systems, and
combined heat and power. Single issues £50 (Inst. Electrical
Eng., Faraday House, POB 96, Stevenage, Herts SG1 2SD, UK).
Copies of individual articles for a modest fee from the IEE
Library (Savoy Pl., London WC2R 0BL; tel: 071-240-1871).
"Energy, Electricity and the Environment," A.E.
Wheldon (Dept. Eng., Univ. Reading, Reading RG6 2AY, UK), C.E.
Gregory, 2-7. This analysis of environmental impacts concludes
there is no simple or single remedy for environmental damage from
energy use and from electricity generation in particular. Energy
efficiency and environmental costing are key themes, and
international agreements on global and long-term problems are
"Role of Fossil Fuels in Electricity Generation and Their
Environmental Impact," A. Williams (Dept. Fuel & Energy,
Leeds Univ., Leeds LS2 9JT, UK), 8-12. This survey includes
available methods of emission control. The role of solid fossil
fuels is expected to continue to diminish.
"Environmental Impacts of Nuclear Power: Past Experience
and Future Prospects," P.R. Maul (INTERA, Chiltern House, 45
Station Rd., Henly on Thames, Oxon RG9 1AT, UK), W. Turner, I.
Glendenning, 13-19. Overall, nuclear power has environmental
benefits compared to other forms of power generation. It adds
desirable diversity to the electricity supply.
"Environmental Impacts of Electricity Generation: Some
Public Policy Dimensions," J. Chesshire (SPRU, Univ. Sussex,
Mantell Bldg., Falmer, Brighton BN1 9RF, UK), 47-52. Examines
some of the principal policy issues affecting the electricity
supply industry, particularly global warming and acid rain. Then
examines the major characteristics of the U.K. stock of
generating plants and ways of adjusting it in light of
environmental and wider political pressures.
"Environmental Impacts of Electricity Generated by
Developing Countries: Issues, Priorities and Carbon Dioxide
Emissions," P.J.G. Pearson (Dept. Econ., Univ. Surrey,
Guildford, Surrey GU2 5XH), 100ff. Examines how and why
environmental issues associated with electricity generation in
developing countries are becoming more pressing for all
countries. Discusses in detail greenhouse gas scenarios and the
possible roles that may be played by developing countries in the
growth or limitation of CO2 emissions.
issues of Energy in Europe. Obtain from Office for
Official Pubs. of the European Communities, L-2985 Luxembourg.
"Energy Policies and Trends in the European
Communities," No. 20, 100 pp., Dec. 1992. Consists of 18
papers by EC energy program staff on topics such as EC policy on
CO2 emissions stabilization, consequences of the
proposed carbon/energy tax, the ALTENER program for renewables,
assistance to former Soviet countries, and energy technology
"A View to the Future," Special Issue, 176 pp., Sep.
1992. Presents results of a study of European energy systems
through the year 2050.
Fuel-Based Energy Production Meet the Challenge of Fighting
Global Warming? A Chance for Biomass and Cogeneration," K.
Sipila (Tech. Res. Ctr., Fuel Technol. Lab., SF-02150, Espoo 15,
Finland), A. Johansson, K. Saviharju, Bioresource Technol., 43(1),
7-12, 1993. Considers, particularly for Finland, whether CO2
emissions can be reduced if energy production is based mainly on
fossil fuels, or are nuclear and renewable sources the only
options for the future?
items from Energy Policy, 21(1), Jan. 1993:
"Possibilities for Substitution between Energy, Time and
Information," D. Spreng (Energy Anal. Group, Swiss Fed.
Inst. Technol., ETH Zentrum, ETL, 8092 Zürich, Switz.), 13-23. A
discussion touching on aspects of physics, engineering and
economics examines the use of these three quantities, in
cumulative form, as factors of production for any economic
activity. Examination of the influence of "new information
technology" (NIT) on energy demand shows that NIT is
used--and could be used much more--to conserve energy, but that
NIT serves more often to speed up processes rather than make them
more energy efficient.
"Energy and Carbon Emissions: Sub-Saharan African
Perspective," O.R. Davidson (Res. & Develop. Serv.,
Univ. Sierra Leone, Freetown, Sierra Leone), 35-43. Illustrates
the importance of the full involvement of the sub-Saharan African
countries in the climate change debate, and suggests policies
that will allow them to support growth in energy services with
less carbon-intensive technologies. Discusses how these countries
can implement such policies without sacrificing development
"Environmental and Economic Implications of Small Scale
CHP," R. Evans (Seven Isl., South Rd., Horncastle LN9 6QB,
UK), 79-91. Discusses for the U.K. the implications of
small-scale combined heat and power (CHP) based on internal
combustion engines fueled by natural gas. This approach offers
great potential for reducing CO2 emissions.
from Energy Policy, 20(12), Dec. 1992:
"Ranking of Greenhouse Gas Abatement Measures," M.K.
Wallis, Univ. Wales, Cardiff, UK), 1130-1133. A comment on
previous papers. Uses a cost-benefit argument to support the
conclusion that energy efficiency is preferable to increasing
energy supply. Also argues that global warming potentials are a
faulty measure of climatic threat.
"The Impact of CHP Generation on CO2
Emissions," A. Verbruggen (Univ. Antwerp, UFSIA, Prinstr.
13, B-2000, Antwerp, Belg.), M. Wiggin et al., 1207-1214. CHP
(combined heat and power) or cogeneration generally but not
always reduces CO2 emissions. This analysis
demonstrates the importance of the interaction between two
variables: the characteristics of the CHP process and the
composition of the electricity generation sector.
from The Energy J., 13(4), Oct. 1992:
"What Does a Negawatt Really Cost? Evidence from Utility
Conservation Programs," P.L. Joskow (Dept. Econ., Mass.
Inst. Technol., Cambridge MA 02139), D.B. Marron, 41-74.
Information reported by ten utilities on their electricity
conservation programs indicates that the life-cycle cost to
utilities of a "negawatt" (energy saved) is
substantially higher than implied by standard sources such as
Amory Lovins (Rocky Mountain Institute) and the Electric Power
Research Institute. Computations based on utility expectations
of savings could be underestimating the actual societal cost by a
factor of two. Better utility cost accounting and more
sophisticated methods of estimating actual energy savings are
"Price and Cost Impacts of Utility DSM Programs," E.
Hirst (Energy Div., Oak Ridge Nat. Lab., Oak Ridge TN 37831),
75-90. Examines whether demand-side management (DSM) programs,
becoming more prevalent among U.S. utilities, should aim to
minimize the total cost of providing electric energy services or
to minimize the price of electricity. A dynamic model yields
quantitative estimates of the trade-offs between these two
alternatives, showing that DSM programs generally reduce
electricity costs but increase electricity prices.
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