February 28, 2007
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A Guide to Information on Greenhouse Gases and Ozone Depletion
Published July 1988 through June 1999
FROM VOLUME 6, NUMBER 4, APRIL 1993
TEMPERATURE TRENDS: ATMOSPHERE
Recent Warming in Eastern Minnesota Shown by Ground
Temperatures," D.G. Baker (Soil Sci. Dept., Univ. Minnesota,
St. Paul MN 55108), D.L. Ruschy, Geophys. Res. Lett., 20(5),
371-374, Mar. 5, 1993.
Thermocouples buried at several levels record temperature
trends without the high-frequency fluctuations present in air
temperatures. For the period 1963-1990, temperature at the 12.8
meter depth showed a trend of 0.041·C per year, consistent with
air temperature trends at two nearby locations.
"Comments on `Effects of Recent Thermometer Changes in the
Cooperative Station Network,'" M. Chenoweth (Dept. Geog.,
Univ. Reading, Reading RG6 2AY, UK), Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 74(3),
447, Mar. 1993.
"Recent Maximum Temperature Anomalies at Albany, New York:
Fact or Fiction?" R.W. Kessler (General Sci. Corp., Laurel,
Md.), L.F. Bosart, R.S. Gaza, ibid., 74(2),
215-226, Feb. 1993.
Analyzes a suspected daily maximum temperature (DMT) bias
introduced by the replacement of a National Weather Service
mercury-in-glass thermometer in 1985. Results show that reported
DMT at Albany has increased by about 0.5·C relative to
surrounding locations since the new sensor was introduced, and
that aspiration in the sensor housing is a major cause of the
Comparison between Patterns of Temperature Trends and Sulfate
Aerosol Pollution," M. Engardt (Dept. Meteor., Stockholm
Univ., S-106 91, Stockholm, Swed.), H. Rodhe, Geophys. Res.
Lett., 20(2), 117-120, Jan. 22, 1993.
Global temperature records over the past century were compared
to estimated atmospheric loading of anthropogenic aerosol
sulfate, to investigate a possible cooling by aerosols. Results
are consistent with theoretical calculations which indicate that
anthropogenic sulfate aerosols cause substantial cooling,
although the statistical significance of this conclusion is low.
the Trends of Temperature and Daily Range in China," Z.W.
Yan (Inst. Atmos. Phys., Acad. Sinica, Beijing 100080, PRC), M.L.
Zhang, Chin. Sci. Bull., 38(1), 54-58, Jan. 1993.
"Long-Term and Recent Anomalous Temperature Changes in
Australia," R.C. Balling Jr. (Off. Clim., Arizona State
Univ., Tempe AZ 85282), S.B. Idso, W.S. Hughes, Geophys. Res.
Lett., 19(23), 2317-2320, Dec. 2, 1992.
Annual mean, maximum and minimum temperatures from a rural
network show a general cooling over the period 1911-1978, with a
steady decrease in diurnal temperature range even though all
three temperatures rose sharply in the late 1970s. This
discontinuity is similar to those found in the Northern
Hemisphere record; whether it is related to the buildup of
greenhouse gases is unknown.
from Theor. Appl. Clim., 45(4), 1992:
"The Work Intensity Function in the Detection of
Greenhouse-Induced Global Temperature Trends," A.H. Gordon
(Inst. Atmos. Marine Sci., Flinders Univ., GPO Box 2100, Adelaide
5001, Australia), 235-240. Defines statistical parameters based
on histogram distributions and applies the concept to global
surface temperatures. Results suggest that the observed record is
drawn from a normal population, and that the identification of
greenhouse-gas-induced warming is complicated by occasional
outlying temperature values.
"Climatic Change in Britain. Is SO2 More Significant Than
CO2?" R.C. Balling Jr. (Off. Clim., Arizona State
Univ., Tempe AZ 85287), S.B. Idso, 251-256. Analysis of British
mean annual temperature and precipitation and mean diurnal
temperature range over the period 1929-1988 indicates several
trends, such as a shift from warming to cooling in the 1950s and
a strong decline in diurnal temperature range. Results suggest
that SO2 rather than CO2 has been the major
anthropogenic climate influence there over the past four decades.
"Weather Categorization in Climate Change
Research--Preliminary Results," I. Nemesova (Inst. Phys.
Atmos., Bocni 2-1401, CS-14131 Prague 4, Czech.), A. Klimperova
et al., Studia Geophys. Geodaetica, 36(4), 370-375,
Presents results of weather regime characterization using
principal component analysis and clustering procedures, leading
to the conclusion that clustering techniques applied to long-term
instrumental data can provide a basis for attempting to detect
gradual temperature changes.
"Analysis of Temperature Series in Europe in Relation to the
Detection of the Enhanced Greenhouse Effect," A.J. Coops
(Inst. Marine & Atmos. Res., Univ. Utrecht, Princetonpl. 5,
Postbus 80000, 3508 TA Utrecht, Neth.), ibid., 46(2-3),
Develops an analysis technique based on the assumption that
climate undergoes abrupt changes by natural means, as a
generalization of an existing method for dividing a series into
two parts. Results of application to data from 13 European
stations are consistent with other reported analyses showing no
clear evidence that increasing levels of greenhouse gases are
affecting climate there.
"Analysis of Mean Temperature Variations at the 1000/5000
hPa Layer over Europe, 1945-88," T.J. Makrogiannis (Dept.
Meteor., Univ. Thessaloniki, GR-54006 Thessaloniki, Greece), H.S.
Sahsamanoglou, Theor. Appl. Clim., 45(3), 193-200,
Most of the area is characterized by positive trends. During
the summer of the last subperiod, 1970-1988, positive thickness
trends predominated, showing that the warmth of the 1980s was not
just a surface phenomenon.
"Singular Spectrum Analysis--A Toolkit for Short, Noisy,
Chaotic Signals," R. Vautard (Meteor. Dynam. Lab.-CNRS,
F-75231 Paris 05, France), P. Yiou, M. Ghil, Physica D, 58(1-4),
95-126, Sep. 15, 1992.
Extends an analysis method based on experience with
applications to geophysical time series, and applies it to a
130-year record of global surface air temperatures as a severe
test of noise reduction and prediction.
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