February 28, 2007
GCRIO Program Overview
Our extensive collection of documents.
Archives of the
Global Climate Change Digest
A Guide to Information on Greenhouse Gases and Ozone Depletion
Published July 1988 through June 1999
FROM VOLUME 6, NUMBER 2, FEBRUARY 1993
OF GENERAL INTEREST
Findings and Policy Implications From the Urban CO2 Reduction Project,
R. Torrie, 19 pp., Jan. 1993. Available (no charge) from Intl. Council for Local
Environ. Initiatives (ICLEI) World Secretariat, City Hall, E. Tower, 8th Fl.,
Toronto ON M5H 2N2, Can. (tel: 416-392-1462; fax: 416-392-1478).
Gives results of a two-year cooperative study among 14 cities
for Western Europe, the Middle East and North America. A major finding shows why
North American cities use so much more energy than their European counterparts.
Differences in population density lead to greater per capita transportation
energy use in the former, and extensive use of combined heat and power
(cogeneration) and district heating systems in the latter. Long-term reductions
in CO2 emissions will only be possible if there is a much greater role for local
governments in CO2 reduction strategies.
Preliminary Guidelines Assessing Impacts of Climate Change,
T.R. Carter, M.L. Parry et al. for Working Group II of the Intergovt. Panel on
Clim. Change (IPCC), 28 pp., 1992. Available (no charge) from Environ. Change
Unit, 1a Mansfield Rd., Oxford OX1 3TB, UK; or Ctr. Global Environ. Res., Nat.
Inst. Environ. Studies, 16-2 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305, Japan.
The first IPCC impacts assessment indicated the difficulty of comparing
climate impacts in different regions and economic sectors derived from
assessments using different methods. This report, the product of an
international expert group established by Working Group II of the IPCC to
develop guidelines for assessments, is considered preliminary and subject to
further development. It does not prescribe a single method, but provides an
analytical outline consisting of seven steps with a range of methods identified
at every step. Guidance is also offered on the organization of research and
communication of results to policy makers and the public.
Available from Ctr. Sci. & Intl. Affairs (CSIA), Harvard Univ., 79
JFK St., Cambridge MA 02138 (617-495-1351):
Strategies of Research Policy Advocacy: Anthropogenic Climatic Change
Research, 1957-1974 (CSIA Disc. Paper 92-08), D. Hart, 60 pp., Sep. 1992.
Analyzes three major strategies by which entrepreneurial members of the
scientific establishment drew upon the public and private interests of political
actors who could support them, to benefit their research. One strategy was
adopting the rhetoric of the environmental movement. Concludes that none of them
were very successful, and that more deliberate political strategizing may be
more plausible and useful.
International Comparisons of Environmental Hazards: Development and
Evaluation of a Method for Linking Environmental Data with the Strategic Debate
Management Priorities for Risk Management (CSIA Disc. Paper 92-09), V.
Norberg-Bohm, W.C. Clark et al., 40 pp., Oct. 1992. Describes and evaluates a
method for comparing environmental hazards within and between countries,
intended for the development of environmental programs that require
international coordination. Although the core of the method is a common set of
indicators that can be used to characterize any environmental problem, the
central role of values in such analyses is recognized. For instance, the
approach can illuminate the implications that emphasize present as opposed to
future impacts, or health as opposed to ecosystem effects. Discusses
applications to India, Kenya, the Netherlands and the U.S.
The Triad as Policymakers (CSIA Disc. Paper 92-11), R. Vernon, 35
pp., Dec. 1992. Explores, for the U.S., the European Community and Japan, the
connection between their future roles in international environmental
negotiations and their respective national histories, values and institutions.
Although these factors explain much of the behavior of these countries on
environmental issues, grass root responses appear to play a larger role in this
area of policy compared to others.
Report of the Committee on Funding Priorities for Climate Research
and Responses, C. Perkins, S. Leatherman et al., 40 pp., Jan. 1993.
Available (no charge) from Climate Inst., 324 Fourth St. NW, Washington DC 20002
Recommends climate research and response strategies to the Clinton
Administration and the 103rd Congress, based largely on the findings of expert
task forces established to examine three areas: (1) atmospheric science and
climate impacts research; (2) energy research and development programs; (3)
coastal and flood protection and insurance programs, storm detection and
tracking, and emergency preparedness and response. The cost of the proposed
initiatives would be outweighed by recommended savings such as reforms in the
federal flood insurance program and reduction of federal subsidies for
unsustainable resource use.
Pathways of Understanding: The Interactions of Humanity and Global
Environmental Change, 56 pp., 1992. Available from Consortium for Intl.
Earth Sci. Info. Network (CIESIN), 2250 Pierce Rd., Univ. Ctr. MI 48710
CIESIN is funded by NASA "to help bring the benefits of Earth
monitoring systems...to policy makers and applied users world-wide," and to
serve as a distributed data center. Aimed at a wide audience, from the general
public to scientists involved in global change research, the core of this
document is the "Social Process Diagram" created by the Human
Interactions Working Group at the 1991 Aspen Global Change Institute, and
described here as a fundamental contribution to human dimensions research. The
diagram, for instance, could help policy makers determine whether a particular
course of study or other recommendation from researchers reflects an
understanding of related issues. The diagram is applied to three cases: sea
level rise, population migration, and the effects of a fossil fuel tax.
Guide to Publishers
Index of Abbreviations