February 28, 2007
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Global Climate Change Digest
A Guide to Information on Greenhouse Gases and Ozone Depletion
Published July 1988 through June 1999
FROM VOLUME 6, NUMBER 2, FEBRUARY 1993
IMPACTS OF UV-B: HUMANS AND ANIMALS
"Stratospheric Ozone Depletion and the Risk of Nonmelanoma Skin
Cancer in a British Population," B.L. Diffey (Dryburn Hosp., Dept. Reg.
Med. Phys., Durham DH1 5TW, UK), Phys. Med. Biol., 37(12),
2267-2279, Dec. 1992.
Estimates that for British adults alive today, continued ozone depletion at
current levels will result in a relatively small additional lifetime risk (<5%)
of nonmelanoma skin cancer. However, the lifetime risk incurred by today's
children is 10%-15% greater than expected in the absence of ozone depletion,
although this risk could be lower if international controls on ozone-depleting
substances are successful. Methods for reducing exposure to the public are
"Increasing Incidence of Cutaneous Melanoma in Queensland,
Australia," R. MacLennan (Queensland Inst. Med. Res., 300 Herston Rd.,
Brisbane QLD 4O29, Australia), A.C. Green et al., J. Natl. Cancer Inst.,
84(18), 1427-1432, Sep. 16, 1992.
Monitoring of trends in Queensland shows that in the 7.5 years up to 1987,
the incidence of invasive melanoma increased by more than one-half in women and
more than doubled in men. Increased exposure appears the most likely
explanation; better understanding is needed of the complex relationships among
individual constitutions, ambient UV radiation, and exposure.
"UV Exposure Reduces Immunization Rates and Promotes Tolerance to
Epicutaneous Antigens in Humans--Relationship to Dose, CD1A-DR+ Epidermal
Macrophage Induction and Langerhans Cell Depletion," K.D. Cooper (Dept.
Dermatol., Univ. Michigan, R5548 Kresge 1, Box 0530, Ann Arbor MI 48109), L.
Oberhelman et al., Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA, 89(18), 8497-8501,
Sep. 15, 1992.
To investigate the potential threat from ozone depletion, subjects were
prospectively randomized to test whether epicutaneous immunization is altered by
prior, biologically equalized doses of UV radiation. Concludes that even
subclinical levels of UV exposure can significantly lower human T-cell-mediated
response to antigens introduced through irradiated skin.
"Ozone Depletion and Its Effects on Human Populations," R.R.
Jones (St. Thomas Hosp., St. Johns Dermatol. Ctr., London SE17 EH, UK), Brit.
J. Dermatol., 127(S41), 2-6, Sep. 1992.
Estimates from epidemiological data that a sustained 10% loss in ozone would
eventually increase the incidence of basal and squamous cell carcinomas by
almost 30% and 50%, respectively. Dermatologists need to look carefully at the
environment to safeguard the health of future generations.
"Hemolysis by Ultraviolet-B of Red Blood Cells from Different Animal
Species," S. Kumar (Ind. Toxicol. Res. Ctr., Lucknow 226001, Uttar Pradesh,
India), P.C. Joshi, Toxicol. in Vitro, 6(4), 345-347, July 1992.
Laboratory studies revealed maximum hemolysis in rat red blood cells,
followed by human, fish, sheep, pigeon, lizard and frog. Concludes that
detrimental photomodification of red blood cells is induced even at the small
increments in UV-B levels related to ozone depletion.
"Stratospheric Ozone Depletion and Animal Health," S.J. Mayer
(Greenpeace Ltd., Canonbury Villas, London N1 2PN, UK), Veterinary Record,
131(6), 120-122, Aug. 8, 1992.
Reviews the most serious possible effects on domestic species, which could
have both animal welfare and economic implications. They include squamous cell
carcinomas of the nonpigmented areas of cats, cattle, sheep and horses;
Uberreiter's syndrome in dogs; infectious keratoconjunctivitis in cattle; and
cataracts and skin lesions on fish in unshaded, aquaculture systems.
"Tryptophan as an Endogenous Photosensitizer to Elicit Harmful
Effects of Ultraviolet-B," V. Babu (Ind. Toxicol. Res. Ctr., Uttar Pradash,
Lucknow 226001, India), P.C. Joshi, Ind. J. Biochem. Biophys., 29(3),
296-298, June 1992.
Experiments show that tryptophan is quite photoreactive under UV-B,
producing reactive forms of oxygen that may contribute to damage to membranes,
cytoplasm and DNA. In the event of increasing stratospheric ozone depletion,
other UV-B chromophores may exhibit similar phototoxic properties.
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