February 28, 2007
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Global Climate Change Digest
A Guide to Information on Greenhouse Gases and Ozone Depletion
Published July 1988 through June 1999
FROM VOLUME 6, NUMBER 1, JANUARY 1993
"Deforestation of the Amazon: A Brazilian Perspective," L.M.
Trapasso (Dept. Geog., Western Kentucky Univ., Bowling Green KY 42101), GeoJournal,
26(3), 311-322, Mar. 1992.
Various alternative perceptions of deforestation were documented by the
author in a nonjudgmental manner based on personal observation and the Brazilian
media. Topics include governmental actions and research on the Amazon, the
Amazon as a frontier, the lure of mineral wealth, the "debt for nature"
question, and environmental martyrdom.
"Empirical Evidence for the Effect of Tropical Deforestation on
Climatic Change," C. Clark (2 Shute Lane, Bruton, Somerset BA10 0BJ, UK),
Environ. Conserv., 19(1), 39-47, Spr. 1992.
Attempts to estimate the global climatic impacts of reducing tropical
rainforest area, based on observed relationships between forest cover and
rainfall in the Caribbean. Results suggest that deforestation will have a larger
effect on climate than has been expected, and that rainforest destruction should
"Brazilian Policies that Encourage Deforestation in the Amazon,"
H.P. Binswanger (World Bank, 1818 H St. NW, Washington DC 20433), World
Devel., 19(7), 821-829, July 1991.
Shows how general tax policies, special tax incentives, the rules of land
allocation and the agricultural credit system all accelerate deforestation, by
increasing the size of land holdings and reducing the chances of the poor to
farm. These provisions must change before afforestation projects can succeed.
Specific recommendations are made.
"Global Deforestation and CO2 Emissions: Past and Present. A
Comprehensive Review," M.A.F. Bueno (Inst. de Estudos Avancados, Univ. de
Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil), M.E.M. Helene, Energy & Environ.,
2(3), 235-282, 1991.
Reviews the causes of deforestation and the consequent CO2 emissions, using
a historical perspective and emphasizing such factors as area, biomass content
and deforestation rates. New approaches for calculating biomass have narrowed
the range of estimates; the most uncertain factor in biotic carbon emissions is
the burning efficiency.
"Changes in the Landscape of Latin America between 1850 and 1985,"
For. Ecol. Mgmt., 38, 1991.
""I. Progressive Loss of Forests," R.A. Houghton (Woods Hole
Res. Ctr., POB 296, Woods Hole MA 02543), D.S. Lefkowitz, D.L. Skole, 143-172.
Reduction in forest area was estimated from changes in the major uses of
land. Between 1850 and 1985, 28% of the forest area was replaced by some other
type of ecosystem. Alternative data and assumptions lead to an estimate of
25-30% reduction; satellite imagery eliminates most uncertainty after 1975.
"II. Net Release of CO2 to the Atmosphere," R.A. Houghton, D.L.
Skole, D.S. Lefkowitz, 173-199.
The estimated net release of carbon over the period was 30 x 1015 g; primary
land uses responsible were pastures (42%), croplands (34%), degraded lands (19%)
and shifting cultivation (5%). Half the total release occurred after 1960, when
the last two categories became more important.
"Estimation, by Remote Sensing, of Deforestation in Central Rond˘nia,
Brazil," T.A. Stone (Woods Hole Res. Ctr., POB 296, Woods Hole MA 02543),
I.F. Brown, G.M. Woodwell, For. Ecol. Mgmt., 38, 291-304, 1991.
Data from the LANDSAT and NOAA AVHRR satellites show that cleared area
increased from 230 km2 in 1980 to 3390 km2 in 1986, with the majority of new
clearings in the range of 10-1000 ha. The majority of clearing was for pasture,
not roads, but road building allows access and virtually guarantees future
clearing by settlers or squatters.
"Tropical Deforestation: Balancing Regional Development Demands and
Global Environmental Concerns," W.B. Wood (Off. of the Geographer, U.S.
Dept. State, Washington DC 20520), Global Environ. Change, 1(1),
23-41, Dec. 1990.
Presents an ecopolitical framework for analyzing the role of various actors
in tropical deforestation, and the political jurisdictions within which they
operate. Deforestation may have limited impact on global warming, but will
affect millions of subsistence inhabitants.
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