February 28, 2007
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Global Climate Change Digest
A Guide to Information on Greenhouse Gases and Ozone Depletion
Published July 1988 through June 1999
FROM VOLUME 6, NUMBER 1, JANUARY 1993
New journal: Palaeoclimates--Data and Modelling, P.J. Valdes,
J.T. Parrish, Eds.-in-Chief. Will include both geological and climatological
studies, and attempt to bring together both observationalists and modelers.
First issue March 1993. Free sample available from Gordon and Breach, Marketing
Dept., POB 786 Cooper Sta., New York NY 10276; or POB 90, Reading, Berkshire RG1
Two items from Nature, 360(6403), Dec. 3, 1992:
"An Uplifting Experience," D. Rind (NASA Goddard Inst. Space
Studies, 2880 Broadway, New York NY 10025), 414-415. Summarizes a Nov. 1992
conference on mountain uplift and climate. Greenhouse warming concerns have
focused attention on the Tertiary period, when the Earth last experienced a very
warm climate, but the relevance of that period to any future trace gas warming
"Ice Age Atmospheric Concentration of Nitrous Oxide from an Ice Core,"
M. Leuenberger (Phys. Inst., Univ. Bern, Sidlerstr. 5, 3012 Bern, Switz.), U.
Siegenthaler, 449-451. Atmospheric concentration of N2O was about 30% lower
during the Last Glacial Maximum than during the Holocene. Present-day
concentrations are unprecedented in the past 45 kyr, providing evidence that
recent N2O increases are anthropogenic.
"Micropaleontological Evidence for Increased Meridional Heat
Transport in the North Atlantic Ocean during the Pliocene," H.J. Dowsett
(U.S. Geolog. Survey, Reston VA 22092), T.M. Cronin et al., Science,
258(5085), 1133-1135, Nov. 13, 1992.
"Glacial-Interglacial Evolution of Greenhouse Gases as Inferred from
Ice Core Analysis--A Review of Recent Results," D. Raynaud (Lab. Glaciol.,
BP 96, F-38402 St. Martin d'Heres, France), J.M. Barnola et al., Quaternary
Sci. Reviews, 11(4), 381-386, 1992.
Evaluates changes in CO2, CH4 and N2O over the last 150,000 years. In the
high latitudes of the Southern Hemisphere, CO2 and CH4 are well correlated and
in phase with the climatic cycle during interglacials, but CH4 decreases in
phase with glacial cooling, while CO2 lags strikingly behind.
Two items from J. Geophys. Res., 97(D14), Oct. 20, 1992:
"d15N of N2 in Air Trapped in Polar Ice: A Tracer of Gas Transport in
the Firn and a Possible Constraint on Ice Age-Gas Age Differences," T.
Sowers (Grad. Sch. Oceanog., Univ. Rhode Island, Narragansett RI 02882), M.
Bender et al., 15,683-15,697. Records of surface temperature and CO2 at the Byrd
and Vostok stations were used to constrain the ice age-gas age difference
throughout the section of the Vostok ice core corresponding to the last glacial
"Relationship of Solar Activity and Climatic Oscillations on the
Colorado Plateau," K. Taylor (Desert Res. Inst., Univ. Nevada, Reno NV
89512), M. Rose, G. Lamorey, 15,803-15,811. The spatial coherence and other
properties of the power spectra of 12 drought-sensitive tree-ring chronologies
were examined, as a basis for understanding short-term climatic fluctuations
that may bear on future rapid change with societal impacts. Abrupt changes in
power spectra suggest chaotic behavior; certain features suggest a solar-climate
"Tree Ring Width and Maximum Latewood Density at the North American
Tree Line--Parameters of Climatic Change," R.D. Darrigo (Lamont-Doherty
Geolog. Observ., Palisades NY 10964), G.C. Jacoby, R.M. Free, Can. J. For.
Res., 22(9), 1290-1296, Sep. 1992.
Uses data from five sites across northern Canada to show how different but
complementary temperature information can be inferred from annual tree ring
width and maximum latewood density. Some, but not all, of the ring width and
density series display increases during the recent century's large-scale warming
"A Zonally Averaged, Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere Model for Paleoclimate
Studies," T.F. Stocker (Lamont-Doherty Geolog. Observ., Palisades NY
10964), D.G. Wright, L.A. Mysak, J. Clim., 5(8), 773-797, Aug.
The model emphasizes thermohaline circulations in the Pacific, Atlantic and
Indian Oceans, and their interconnection, and is applied to the effect of
freshwater discharge into the North Atlantic. Reversals of deep circulation were
possible in the North Atlantic and the Pacific; four different stable equilibria
were realized in the model.
"Enhanced Ventilation of the North Atlantic Subtropical Gyre
Thermocline during the Last Glaciation," N.C. Slowey (Dept. Oceanog., Texas
A & M Univ., College Sta. TX 77843), W.B. Curry, Nature, 358(6388),
665-667, Aug. 20, 1992.
Variations in gyre processes should be linked to variations in global
climate, and gyres are significant reservoirs of carbon and nutrients. Here
measurements of d13C and d18O in foraminifera from the Bahamas are used to
produce a detailed reconstruction of nutrient and temperature profiles in the
thermocline during the last glaciation.
"Changes in Surface Salinity of the North Atlantic Ocean during the
Last Deglaciation," J.C. Duplessy (Ctr. Faibles Radioactiv., Lab. mixte
CNRS-CEA, Ave. de la Terrasse, 91198 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex, France), L. Labeyrie
et al., Nature, 358(6386), 485-488, Aug. 6, 1992.
Uses micropaleontological and stable-isotope records from foraminifera in
two cores to generate two continuous, high-resolution records of sea surface
temperature and salinity changes over the last 18,000 years, to yield
information on abrupt climate changes such as the Younger Dryas.
"Sea-Surface Temperature from Coral Skeletal Strontium/Calcium
Ratios," J.W. Beck (Dept. Geol., Univ. Minnesota, Minneapolis MN 55455),
R.L. Edwards et al., Science, 257(5070), 644-647, July 31, 1992.
Shows how records of mean monthly SST over the past 105 years can be
recovered, using thermal ionization mass spectrometry applied to data from the
southwestern Pacific Ocean.
"Evidence from Cd/Ca Ratios in Foraminifera for Greater Upwelling
off California 4,000 Years Ago," A. van Geen (U.S. Geolog. Surv., MS 465,
345 Middlefield Rd., Menlo Pk. CA 94025), S.N. Luoma et al., Nature,
358(6381), 54-56, July 2, 1992. Shows that foraminiferal Cd/Ca ratios
can be used to detect past changes in mean upwelling intensity.
"Molecular Record of Twentieth-Century El Niņo Events in
Laminated Sediments from the Santa Barbara Basin," J.A. Kennedy (Dept.
Geol., Stanford Univ., Stanford CA 94305), S.C. Brassell, Nature, 357(6373),
62-64, May 7, 1992.
Demonstrates how organic molecules preserved in sediments, especially
long-chained alkenones, can provide an annually resolved record of oceanic
temperature changes, and may constitute a valuable tool for describing and
evaluating the history of global climate variability and change.
"Paleotemperatures in the Southwestern United States Derived from
Noble Gases in Ground Water," M. Stute (Lamont-Doherty Geolog. Observ.,
Palisades NY 10964), P. Schlosser et al., Science, 256(5059),
1000-1003, May 15, 1992.
Demonstrates application of a new technique, and shows that the annual mean
temperature in the area during the last glacial maximum was about 5·C lower
than at present. This contrasts with sea surface temperature deduced for the
same time, posing questions concerning our current understanding of paleoclimate
and climate processes.
"The GISP2 Ice Core and Snow-Atmosphere Chemical Exchange," R.
Bales (Univ. Arizona), J. Dibb, A. Neftel, Eos, p. 213, May 12, 1992.
Gives results of a workshop held to develop a 3- to 5-year research program on
snow-atmosphere chemical exchange, in conjunction with the GISP2 ice core
project. (A workshop report is available from the first author.)
Two items from J. Atmos. Chem., 14(1-4), Apr. 1992:
"Initial Findings of Recent Investigations of Air-Snow Relationships in
the Summit Region of the Greenland Ice Sheet," J.E. Dibb (Glacier Res.
Group, Univ. New Hampshire, Durham NH 03824), J.-L. Jaffrezo, M. Legrand,
167-180. Early results of work intended to elucidate the relationship between
air chemistry and deposited snow and ice show that intense surface inversions
can exert a dominant influence on surface-level air chemistry, and that the
relation used to deduce snow age from depth may have to be reassessed.
"Gas Phase Measurements of Hydrogen Peroxide in Greenland and Their
Meaning for the Interpretation of H2O2 Records in Ice Cores," A. Sigg
(Phys. Inst., Sidlerstr. 5, CH-3012 Bern, Switz.), T. Staffelbach, A. Neftel,
223-232. Diurnal behavior, scavenging mechanisms by snow, and the redistribution
of H2O2 during firnification are discussed.
"A Review of Terrestrial and Marine Climates in the Cretaceous with
Implications for Modelling the `Greenhouse Earth,'" R.A. Spicer (Dept.
Earth Sci., Univ. Oxford, Oxford OX1 3PR, UK), R.M. Corfield, Geolog. Mag.,
129(2), 169-180, Mar. 1992.
The Cretaceous was an extreme greenhouse world apparently warmer than
current conditions. Its geological record provides perspective and constraints
against which the success of climate models can be evaluated. Prominent climatic
characteristics of the period are discussed.
"Popular Formulations for Modeling Tree Rings from Climate: A
Unifying Approach," P.C. Van Deusen (Southern Exper. Sta., USDA For. Serv.,
701 Loyola Ave., New Orleans LA 70113), J. Environ. Qual., 20(4),
823-827, Oct.-Dec. 1991. Presents a general formulation that includes most
commonly used models as special cases, and demonstrates how to choose among
Guide to Publishers
Index of Abbreviations