February 28, 2007
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A Guide to Information on Greenhouse Gases and Ozone Depletion
Published July 1988 through June 1999
FROM VOLUME 6, NUMBER 6, JUNE 1993
Southern Hemisphere warming that could be related to
anthropogenic causes is evident in tree-ring data. (See: "A
3620-Year Temperature Record from Fitzroya cupressoides
Tree Rings in Southern South America," A. Lara (Inst.
Silvicultura, Univ. Austral de Chile, Casilla 567, Valdivia,
Chile), R. Villalba, Science, 260(5111), 1104-1106,
May 21, 1993.)
climate fluctuations: New ice core analyses show evidence of
rapid climate changes in as little as a few years. (See papers in
the Nature,362(6420), Apr. 8, 1993: "Flip-Flop
End to Last Ice Age," R.G. Fairbanks, 495; and "Abrupt
Increase in Greenland Snow Accumulation at the End of the Younger
Dryas Event," R.B. Alley, D.A. Meese et al., 527-529)
ice sheet stability: A geologic study suggests that collapse
of the ice sheet by global warming is unlikely. (See
"Pliocene Paleoclimate and East Antarctic Ice-Sheet History
from Surficial Ash Deposits," D.R. Marchant, C.C. Swisher
III et al., Science, 260(5108), 667-670, Apr. 30,
aerosol cooling: A modeling study shows that the radiative
forcing of aerosols completely offsets greenhouse forcing in
summer over the eastern U.S. and central Europe. (See "The
Relative Roles of Sulfate Aerosols and Greenhouse Gases in
Climate Forcing," J.T. Kiehl, B.P. Briegleb, Science, 260(5106),
311-314, Apr. 16, 1993.)
model comparison: The international Model Evaluation
Consortium for Climate Assessment (MECCA) has begun a second
round of experiments intended to improve climate models and
present scientific results in a form meaningful to decision
makers. Included are climate simulations for Europe and eastern
Asia, transient simulations with a coupled ocean-atmosphere
model, and development of generic procedures for validating
models. (See Air & Waste, pp. 772-773, May 1993.)
"Volcanoes May Warm Locally While Cooling Globally,"
R.A. Kerr, Science, p. 1232, May 28. Temperature records
suggest that volcanic eruptions may tend to warm Eurasia and
North America in winter, despite their global average cooling
effect. Discusses a paper by Robock and Mao (see Prof.
Pub./Climatic Impact of Strat. Aerosols), other evidence, and
"Cold Answers to Hot Issues," D.A. Peel, Nature,
pp. 403-404, June 3. One of the most significant results
discussed at a March NATO workshop on ice core studies was the
strongest evidence yet for a positive climate forcing by methane.
"Little Ice Age Blip," A.M. Gillis, Bioscience,
p. 284, May 1993. Results presented at the latest AAAS meeting
show that tree ring and ice core data give little indication of
any global cool period corresponding to the well-documented
Little Ice Age experienced in Europe.
Hungry Ants Hinder Return of the Forest," J. Beard, New
Scientist, p. 16, May 22. Ant species that occupy cleared
forest land are different from those in the original forest, and
may be preventing the reforestation of millions of acres of
abandoned ranchland in Brazil.
"NASA Launches a 5-Year Plan to Clone Drones," G.
Taubes, Science, p. 286, Apr. 16. Pilotless aircraft
capable of collecting data for ozone depletion and global warming
studies at relatively low cost have recently become a budget
priority for NASA.
"Researchers Fear Antarctic Studies Face a Chilling
Future," R. Monastersky, Science News, 232-235, Apr.
10. Many scientists fear that the 1991 treaty among 26 nations,
intended to protect Antarctica from ecological damage, could
hinder legitimate scientific work.
"Ocean-in-a-Machine Starts Looking Like the Real
Thing," R.A. Kerr, Science, pp. 32-33, Apr. 2. The
supercomputer, fine-mesh ocean circulation model developed by
Albert Semtner and Robert Chervin is impressing other
oceanographers, and its representation of the Indian Ocean
"conveyor belt" flow has implications for the stability
of the conveyor during climate change.
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