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Global Climate Change DigestArchives of the
Global Climate Change Digest

A Guide to Information on Greenhouse Gases and Ozone Depletion
Published July 1988 through June 1999

FROM VOLUME 6, NUMBER 5, MAY 1993

PROFESSIONAL PUBLICATIONS...
SULFUR, CLOUDS AND CLIMATE


Item #d93may14

Three items from J. Geophys. Res., 98(D2), Feb. 20, 1993:

"Sulfate Aerosol Distributions and Cloud Variations During El Niņo Anomalies," F. Parungo (ARL, NOAA, 325 Broadway, Boulder CO 80303), B. Hicks, 2667-2675. The effects of aerosols on cloud characteristics, albedo, rainfall amount and overall climate changes were investigated using historical records and data from recent field measurements. ENSO perturbations change sulfate aerosol production and distribution over the regions; cloud dynamics rather than sulfate aerosols play the pivotal role in control of cloud types and amount.

"Cloud Condensation Nuclei Near Marine Cumulus," J.G. Hudson (Desert Res. Inst., Univ. Nevada, Reno NV 89512), 2693-2702. Airborne measurements of cloud condensation nucleus spectra and condensation nuclei in and around cumulus clouds near Hawaii point to important aerosol-cloud interactions.

"Optical Properties of Marine Stratocumulus Clouds Modified by Ships," M.D. King (NASA-Goddard, Greenbelt MD 20771), L.F. Radke, P.V. Hobbs, 2729-2739. Airborne measurements of the angular distribution of scattered radiation deep within a cloud layer show that total optical thickness increased in the cloud tracks.


Item #d93may15

"Climatic Change in Britain. Is SO2 More Significant Than CO2?" R.C. Balling Jr. (Off. Clim., Arizona State Univ., Tempe AZ 85287), S.B. Idso, Theor. Appl. Clim., 45(4), 251-256, 1992.

Analysis of climatic data over the period 1929-1988 suggests that SO2 rather than CO2 has been the major anthropogenic climate influence in Britain over the past four decades.


Item #d93may16

Two items from J. Geophys. Res., 97(D18), Dec. 20, 1992:

"Aqueous-Phase Chemical Processes in Deliquescent Sea-Salt Aerosols: A Mechanism That Couples the Atmospheric Cycles of S and Sea Salt," W.L. Chameides (Sch. Geophys. Sci., Georgia Inst. Technol., Atlanta GA 30332), A.W. Stelson, 20,565-20,580. Investigations using a steady-state box model suggest that sea salt may remove a significant amount of S from the marine atmosphere, thereby depressing boundary layer SO2 concentration and limiting the number of cloud condensation nuclei generated by oxidation of SO2.

"New Particle Formation in the Marine Boundary Layer," D.S. Covert (Dept. Atmos. Sci., Univ. Washington, AK-40, Seattle WA 98195), V.N. Kapustin et al., 20,581-20,589. Aerosol measurements along the coast of Washington State provide evidence that, at times, high concentrations of new ultrafine particles are formed at low SO2 concentrations under marine conditions by homogeneous nucleation.


Item #d93may17

"Removal of Sulphur from the Marine Boundary Layer by Ozone Oxidation in Sea-Salt Aerosols," H. Sievering (NOAA, 325 Broadway, Boulder CO 80303), J. Boatman et al., Nature, 360(6404), 571-573, Dec. 10, 1992.

Results of field observations and modeling demonstrate that oxidation of SO2 to sulfate by ozone, generally considered important only in cloud droplets, is also an important removal pathway for sulfur in the marine boundary layer, and may greatly reduce the proposed greenhouse warming feedback involving oceanic DMS emissions and sulfate haze albedo.


Item #d93may18

"A Model Study of the Formation of Cloud Condensation Nuclei in Remote Marine Areas," X. Lin (Sch. Geophys. Sci., Georgia Inst. Technol., Atlanta GA 30332), W.L. Chameides et al., J. Geophys. Res., 97(D16), 18,161-18,171, Nov. 20, 1992.

Theoretical modeling suggests that the coupling between DMS emissions and CCN production in the marine boundary layer can only exist when the existing CCN concentrations fall below a critical concentration.


Item #d93may19

"Sulfur: The Plankton/Climate Connection," G. Malin (Sch. Environ. Sci., Univ. E. Anglia, Norwich NR4 7TJ, UK), S.M. Turner, P.S. Liss, J. Phycol., 28(5), 590-597, Oct. 1992.

A review considering DMS formation in seawater, emission to the atmosphere, atmospheric transformations, the role of DMS oxidation products in climate regulation, and how global changes might affect DMS production.


Item #d93may20

"An Indicating Oxidant Scrubber for the Measurement of Atmospheric Dimethylsulphide," P. Kittler (Govt. Analyt. Labs.--Tasmanian Region, POB 84, Kingston, Tasmania 7150, Australia), H. Swan, J. Ivey, Atmos. Environ., 26A(14), 2661-2664, Oct. 1992.


Item #d93may21

"Measurements of Carbonyl Sulfide in Automotive Emissions and an Assessment of its Importance to the Global Sulfur Cycle," A. Fried (NCAR, POB 3000, Boulder CO 80307), B. Henry et al., J. Geophys. Res., 97(D13), 14,621-14,634, Sep. 20, 1992.

Estimates an upper limit for global OCS emissions from automobiles of 0.008 Tg/yr, 100-600 times less important than the sum of all OCS sources. However, OCS emissions may be important on a local scale.


Item #d93may22

"Dimethyl Sulfide Concentrations in the Surface Waters of the Australasian Antarctic and Subantarctic Oceans During an Austral Summer," A.R. McTaggart (Dept. Anal. Chem., Univ. New S. Wales, Kensington, Australia), H. Burton, J. Geophys. Res., 97(C9), 14,407-14,412, Sep. 15, 1992.


Item #d93may23

"The Ratio of MSA to Non-Sea-Salt Sulphate in Antarctic Peninsula Ice Cores," R. Mulvaney (Brit. Antarctic Surv., High Cross, Madingley Rd., Cambridge CB3 0ET, UK), E.C. Pasteur et al., Tellus, 44B(4), 295-303, Sep. 1992.

Methane sulfonic acid (MSA) in an ice core from Dolleman Island appears in higher concentrations compared to elsewhere in Antarctica, and shows seasonal anomalies, which are explored here.


Item #d93may24

Two items from Atmos. Environ., 26A(13), Sep. 1992:

"Factors Influencing the Atmospheric Flux of Reduced Sulphur Compounds from North Sea Inter-Tidal Areas," R.M. Harrison (Sch. Biolog. Sci., Univ. Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TT, UK), D.B. Nedwell, M.T. Shabbeer, 2381-2387. Measurements from three types of intertidal sites indicate that intertidal areas do not significantly contribute to the regional atmospheric sulfur budget.

"Cryogenic Trapping of Reduced Sulfur Compounds Using a Nafion Drier and Cotton Wadding as an Oxidant Scavenger," U. Hofmann (Biochem. Dept., M. Planck Inst. Chem., POB 3060, D-6500 Mainz, Ger.), R. Hofmann, J. Kesselmeier, 2445-2449.


Item #d93may25

Two items from J. Geophys. Res., 97(D12), Aug. 20, 1992:

"Simulations of Condensation and Cloud Condensation Nuclei from Biogenic SO2 in the Remote Marine Boundary Layer," F. Raes (Environ. Inst., Commission of the European Communities, I-21020 Ispra, Italy), R. Van Dingenen, 12,901-12,912. An aerosol dynamics model is used to simulate a number of observations regarding CN and CCN, particularly whether the processes of homogeneous nucleation and acid condensation are sufficient to explain the observations, and can help quantify the link between biogenic SO2 and CCN.

"Modeling the Effects of Heterogeneous Cloud Chemistry on the Marine Particle Size Distribution," D.A. Hegg (Dept. Atmos. Sci., Univ. Washington, AK-40, Seattle WA 98195), P.-F. Yuen, T.V. Larson, 12,927-12,933. An explicit microphysical model with size-resolved chemistry suggests that the presence of alkaline seasalt particles has a significant impact on the magnitude and properties of sulfate produced in clouds.


Item #d93may26

"Seasonal Variations of Atmospheric Sulfur Dioxide and Dimethylsulfide Concentrations at Amsterdam Island in the Southern Indian Ocean," J.P. Putaud (Ctr. Faibles Radioactiv., Lab. mixte CNRS-CEA, Ave. de la Terrasse, 91198, Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex, France), N. Mihalopoulos et al., J. Atmos. Chem., 15(2), 117-131, Aug. 1992.


Item #d93may27

Four items from J. Atmos. Chem., 14(1-4), Apr. 1992:

"Free Tropospheric Reservoir of Natural Sulfate," R.J. Delmas (Lab. Glaciol. & Geophys. Environ., BP 96, 38402 St. Martin d'Hères Cedex, France), 261-271. 10Be was used as a spike of natural background atmospheric aerosol to calculate the global flux of sulfur into the free troposphere. Results suggest that most of the sulfur emitted at ground level remains in the boundary layer. The role of OCS in the upper tropospheric sulfur budget is reviewed, especially the significant impacts of volcanic eruptions.

"Particle Size Distributions of Methanesulfonate in the Tropical Pacific Marine Boundary Layer," A.A.P. Pszenny (NOAA Atlantic Lab., 4301 Rickenbacker Causeway, Miami FL 33149), 273-284. Cascade impactor samples are consistent with previous results suggesting that MSA produced from photochemical oxidation of DMS condenses preferentially on preexisting particles, implying that MSA may not contribute appreciably to enhancing CCN populations in the remote tropical marine atmosphere.

"Sulfur Emissions to the Atmosphere from Natural Sources," T.S. Bates (PMEL, NOAA, 7600 Sand Pt. Way NE, Seattle WA 98115), B.K. Lamb et al., 315-337. Measurements of sulfur gases and fluxes during the past decade were combined to create a global emission inventory, which takes into account the seasonal behavior of biogenic sources. Natural emissions are estimated to be 58% of the total in the Southern Hemisphere but only 16% in the Northern Hemisphere, showing the impact of anthropogenic emissions in the north.

"A Time Series for Carbonyl Sulfide in the Northern Hemisphere," A.R. Bandy (Dept. Chem., Drexel Univ., Philadelphia PA 19104), D.C. Thornton et al., 527-534. A grouping of all measurements made by the researchers for the period 1977-1991 indicates a change with time of OCS between -1.5 and 1.5 ppt per year at the 95% confidence level.

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