February 28, 2007
GCRIO Program Overview
Our extensive collection of documents.
Archives of the
Global Climate Change Digest
A Guide to Information on Greenhouse Gases and Ozone Depletion
Published July 1988 through June 1999
FROM VOLUME 6, NUMBER 5, MAY 1993
EMISSION CONTROL POLICIES & CONVENTIONS
Policy in the Greenhouse, Vol. 2--Least-Cost Insurance Against
Greenhouse Risks: The Cost of Cutting Carbon Emissions, F.
Krause, J. Koomey et al., 700 pp., published in five parts
beginning Apr. 1993 with Part 1. $350 for all five parts, or
separately as listed below (+$10 shipping per order if overseas).
Order from IPSEP (International Project for Sustainable Energy
Paths), 7627 Leviston Ave., El Cerrito CA 94530 (tel/fax:
Further documents results of a multiyear, international
research project supported by the Dutch Ministry of Environment.
This report expands on an earlier version published last spring (GCCD,
p. 56, Apr. 1992), and, according to IPSEP, represents the most
comprehensive and detailed assessment to date of the economic
cost of carbon reductions. (Volume 1 of Energy Policy in the
Greenhouse, dealing with ecologically-based CO2 emission
reduction targets, is available from Wiley & Sons in the
U.S., Earthscan in the U.K., and in a German edition from C.F.
Müller Verlag, Karlsruhe. It was listed in GCCD, Books,
p. 115, July 1992.)
In contrast to past studies, which have been limited to
certain high-tax options, this study concludes that there are
much cheaper options than high energy or carbon taxes for
reducing carbon emissions effectively. It offers a least-cost
approach emphasizing strong programs for correcting a variety of
market barriers to the efficient use of energy, complemented by
modest energy taxes and targeted recycling of tax revenues into
investments. This approach would avoid the negative economic
impacts predicted in conventional macroeconomic studies and would
enhance economic growth. Regions that are the first to act on
these opportunities could gain leadership and competitive
advantage in key technologies.
Part 1--Cutting Carbon Emissions: Burden or Benefit? The
Economics of Energy-Tax and Non-Price Policies, approx. 150
pp., $50. Attempts to resolve the conflicting results of two
alternative approaches to estimating the costs of reducing carbon
emissions, a conflict underscored during the debate over
international emission controls prior to the June 1992 Earth
Summit. The "top-down" or macroeconomic approach
generally predicts losses in economic output as a result of
carbon reduction policies, while "bottom-up" or
microeconomic analyses generally predict much lower costs or net
savings. Twelve key studies from the U.S., Canada and Europe
representing the two approaches are compared in a scholarly
analysis covering the full range of relevant economic issues,
including trade effects, industrial migration, technological
competition, and prospects for Third World participation in
climate stabilization. Among the conclusions: significant cuts in
carbon emissions are feasible while saving nations and consumers
money; emission reduction policies should emphasize instruments
other than carbon taxes; conventional macroeconomic modeling
assessments are ill-suited as the principal basis for assessing
carbon reduction costs. Concludes with specific guidelines for
Part 2--The Cost of Carbon Reductions in Western Europe,
$50. This case study draws on the sector-specific studies
described in the remaining parts, which also include
supplementary material relating to the U.S. Develops specific
policy scenarios for each sector, and reviews innovative policies
that could harmonize the concern over global warming with other
concerns, such as deregulation in the utility sector, urban air
pollution, and road congestion. The economic impacts of such
policies are then calculated.
Parts 3A, 3B, 3C, 3D--Sourcebooks: Electrical Efficiency,
Fossil and Renewable Supplies, The Transport Sector, Nuclear
Power, $100 for all four.
Part 4--The Transport Sector, $80.
Part 5--Efficiency in Industry and Buildings, $50.
Energy: Why and How, Intl. Energy Agency/Org. for Econ.
Cooperation & Development, Mar. 1993, $39/£29/DM70. OECD Pubs.
Reviews the energy tax regimes of five OECD countries
(Australia, Denmark, Germany, Japan, U.S.) and analyzes the
reasons why governments tax energy. Explores whether energy taxes
might be employed for uses other than raising revenues, and how
effective they might be. Neither advocates nor opposes the use of
energy taxes as a means to achieve goals other than revenue
Economic Costs of Reducing CO2 Emissions (OECD
Economic Studies No. 19), 208 pp., Mar. 1993, $25/£15/DM47. OECD
Contains six articles that: describe results from the GREEN
global model for evaluating the impacts of emission control
policies; compare GREEN with five other such models; examine the
impacts of a "no-regrets" approach to an international
agreement; and analyze the effects of superimposing carbon taxes
on current energy taxes in OECD countries. One conclusion is that
reductions by industrial countries will have only a limited
effect on world-wide emissions; abatement policies should focus
on developing countries.
Economic Consequences of the Proposed Energy/Carbon Tax. Final
Report, DRI European Energy Service and DRI European Economic
Service for the Commission of the European Communities (CEC),
1993. Contact CEC, Project DGXI, 200 Rue de la Loi, B-1049
This report updates one produced for the CEC in 1991, using a
more specific tax proposal and revised energy and economic
projections through the year 2005. Results suggest that overall
EC economic performance suffers slightly under the tax if the EC
imposes it unilaterally and grants no exemptions for
energy-intensive industries. (An extensive summary appears in Energy,
Econ. & Clim. Change, pp. 9-11, Mar. 1993.)
Burden Sharing in Greenhouse Gas Reduction, A. Grubler, N.
Nakicenovic, 1992, no charge. Request from Environ. Dept., World
Bank, 1818 H St. NW, Washington DC 20433 (202-473-2941).
A working paper providing an overview of current and
historical greenhouse emissions, and examining alternatives for
sharing efforts to lower greenhouse emissions among regions and
the following from the Center for the New West, 600 World Trade
Ctr., 1625 Broadway, Denver CO 80202 (303-592-5310). (A critical
analysis of the second item appears in the monthly Energy,
Econ. & Clim. Change, pp. 13-15, Feb. 1992.)
A Carbon Tax Undermines Economy, Environment,
P.M. Burgess, A. Bane, M. Kelly, 15 pp., Feb. 1993, $3. This
summary of the following, more detailed report concludes that
carbon taxes are the worst form of energy tax, and would cost
hundreds of thousands of jobs in the U.S., particularly in the
The Costs and Implications of Controlling CO2
Emissions in the U.S., R.L. McMahan, G.P. Starry (Resour.
Data Intl. Inc., Boulder, Colo.), 45 pp., 1993, $10. Criticizes
the application of econometric models to the impacts of CO2
control strategies because they fail to effectively model the
energy sector. Presents instead an empirical analysis of the
electric utility sector involving three alternative scenarios.
Energy Policy and Coal: Perspectives on the West, 45
pp., 1993, $10.
following were listed as further reading in the article
"Criteria for International Offset Projects: A Look at the
Issues," Global Environ. Change Rep., pp. 1-3, Jan.
The Framework Convention on Climate Change: Some Thoughts
on Joint Implementation, H. Merkus, 1992. Clim. Change
Div./640, Minist. Housing, Physical Planning & Environ., POB
30945, 2500 GX The Hague, Neth. (fax: +31-70-3391310).
The Climate Convention: Criteria and Guidelines for Joint
Implementation, T. Hanish et al., CICERO, POB 1066, Blindern,
N-0316 Oslo, Norway (fax: +47-2-856284).
Available from Environmental Defense Fund, 257 Park Ave. S,
New York NY 10010 (212-505-2100): Joint Implementation and the
Developing of an Emissions Trading System for Greenhouse Gases; Preserving
Tropical Forests and Climate: The Role of Trees in Greenhouse Gas
Emissions Trading; Proposal for a Forests for the Future
Project in Russia.
Climate is Right for Action: Voluntary Programs to Reduce
Greenhouse Gas Emissions (EPA 400-K-92-005), 23 pp., Oct.
1992, no charge. Public Info. Ctr., U.S. Environ. Protection
Agency, Washington DC 20460 (202-475-7751).
A booklet describing the programs developed by EPA to
encourage reductions in greenhouse gas emissions by industry,
state and local government and others, through changes in
lighting, space heating, computers, corporate purchasing etc.
Global Warming: Economic Instruments for CO2
Reductions--How to Harness Market Forces, C.M.
Wolfrum, 72 pp., July 1992, DM16. Available from author,
Lentersweg 2, D-2000 Hamburg 63, Ger.
Warming and Urban Smog: The Cost-Effectiveness of CAFE Standards
and Alternative Fuels (ENR92-13), A.J. Krupnick, M.A. Walls,
C.T. Collins, 1992, $5. Publications, Resources for the Future,
1616 P St. NW, Washington DC 20036 (202-328-5086).
This discussion paper evaluates alternative transportation
policies in terms of cost per ton of greenhouse gases reduced,
adjusted for the benefits of local ozone (smog) reduction. Finds
compressed natural gas to be the most cost-effective alternative,
followed by increased fuel economy standards, substitution of
methanol for gasoline, and reformulated gasoline mixtures.
volumes (in German) of International Greenhouse Gas
Verification, produced by Forschungszentrum Juelich G.m.b.H.
for the Bundesministerium fuer Forschung und Technologie (Bonn),
are available from NTIS:
1. Analysis of Databases on Climate-Relevant
Emissions in the Federal Republic of Germany (JUEL-2614), U.
Fritsche, F.C. Matthes, 103 pp., May 1992. NTIS: TIB/B93-00362;
$50. Despite detailed official statistics on emissions, only data
on CO2 emissions from energy conversion are currently
2. Institutional Verification Problems in the Context of an
International Climate Convention (JUEL-2641), S. Comes, 120
pp., July 1992. NTIS: TIB/B93-00361; $50. Discusses various
aspects of verification: why it tends to be neglected in
international agreements, organizational structure, the role of
environmental monitoring networks, and a specific proposal for
the international climate convention.
3. Theory and Practice of the Verification of a Global
Climate Convention (JUEL-2642, M. Efinger, H. Breitmeier, 96
pp., July 1992. NTIS: TIB/B93-00360; $33. The authors apply their
combined experience in verification and cooperation in
disarmament, arms control, and international ecological
Markets for CO2 Emissions and Other Pollutants, J.
Heister (Inst. Weltwirtschaft, Univ. Kiel, Ger.), P. Michaelis,
27 pp., Sep. 1991. NTIS: TIB/B92-03490; $33.
Presents specific details of a proposed coupon system for
tradable emission permits, and evaluates its performance in the
framework of the EC's future internal market.
Guide to Publishers
Index of Abbreviations