February 28, 2007
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Global Climate Change Digest
A Guide to Information on Greenhouse Gases and Ozone Depletion
Published July 1988 through June 1999
FROM VOLUME 6, NUMBER 9, SEPTEMBER 1993
GENERAL INTEREST AND POLICY
Warming and the Greenhouse Effect," G. Kukla (Lamont-Doherty
Earth Observ., Palisades NY 10964), T.R. Karl, Environ. Sci.
Technol., 27(8), 1468-1474, Aug. 1993.
Discusses the likelihood that the rise in nighttime and early
morning temperatures observed since the 1940s is related to the
increase in greenhouse gases. The cooling effect of aerosols
derived from SO2 emissions may also be a factor. The
inconsistency of the observed trend with simulations by general
circulation models in which greenhouse gases are the only
variables that change reflects current model deficiencies.
"Common Threads: Research Lessons from Acid Rain, Ozone
Depletion and Global Warming," M.E. Kowalok (Off. Sci. &
Technol. Policy, Exec. Off. of the President, Washington, D.C.), Environment, 35(6),
14-20, 35-38, July-Aug. 1993.
Gives brief accounts of the research on these three topics,
demonstrating that environmental research, despite its
unpredictability, has several important characteristics.
"Exploring the Links Between Desertification and Climate
Change," M. Hulme (Clim. Res. Unit, Univ. E. Anglia, Norwich
NR4 7TJ, UK), M. Kelly, ibid., 4-11, 39-44.
The Sahara Desert is spreading southward, but the relative
contributions of climate change and land use to this trend are
not clear. Before desertification can be stopped, its
causes--particularly any self-reinforcing cycles--must be
understood. Reviews relevant research and discusses the upcoming
Negotiations for the Convention to Combat Desertification.
Fourth Meeting of the Parties to the Montreal Protocol: Report
and Reflection," I.H. Rowlands (London Sch. Econ. &
Political Sci.), ibid., 25-34.
Although much was achieved at the Nov. 1992 meeting in
Copenhagen, the ozone depletion issue is by no means resolved.
Science, economics and politics will be crucial to further
developments. The experience gained could prove valuable as the
international community attempts to tackle much more complex
"Evidence of the Phase-Out of CFC Use in Europe over the
Period 1987-1990," P.G. Simmonds (Dept. Biogeochem., Univ.
Bristol, Bristol, UK), D.M. Cunnold et al., Atmos. Environ., 27A(9),
1397-1407, June 1993.
Measurements of the principle CFCs and other radiatively
active gases collected at Mace Head, Ireland, provide the first
clear evidence that European regulations to phase out CFC
production are effective. CCl2F2, CCl3F and CH4
emissions had already declined to about one-third of 1987 levels
by the end of 1990.
"Stratospheric Ozone Protection: The Montreal Protocol and
Title VI of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990," C.R.
Babst III (Babst, Calland, Clements & Zomnir, P.C.), Air
& Waste, 43(8), 1066-1067, Aug. 1993.
Gives a concise summary of current U.S. regulations for
phasing out ozone-depleting chemicals, and developing safe
issue: International Challenges, 13(2), June
1993. (Journal of the Fritdjof Nansen Inst., POB 326, N-1324
Lysaker, Norway.) The following are among seven papers derived
from a workshop on international environment and resource
agreements (Oslo, Oct. 1992):
"Political Science and the Question of Effectiveness of
International Environmental Institutions," M. Levy (Intl.
Affairs, Princeton Univ.), 17-35. Surveys views of political
scientists and suggests ways to better understand effectiveness.
"Cost-Effective and Efficient International Environmental
Agreements," M. Hoel (Dept. Econ., Univ. Oslo), 36-46.
Distinguishes between cost-effectiveness and efficiency, and
shows how a cost-effective climate agreement could be designed.
"The Role of Scientific Assessments on Climate Change and
Ozone Depletion for Negotiations of International
Agreements," I.S. Isaksen (Ctr. Intl. Clim. & Energy
Res., Oslo), 76-84. Contrasts the relative certainty of
scientific knowledge on ozone depletion with the much greater
uncertainty regarding climate change.
"Global Warming," M. Hulme (Clim. Res. Unit., Univ. E.
Anglia, Norwich NR4 7TJ, UK), Prog. Phys. Geog., 17(1),
81-91, Mar. 1993.
Updates a previous status report of the science of global
climate change, focusing on: developments in paleoclimatology as
background for interpreting the instrumental temperature record,
climate change detection, and scenarios of future greenhouse gas
emissions and associated warming predictions.
EPA Science Advisory Board: A Case Study in Institutional History
and Public Policy," T.F. Yosi (E. Bruce Harrison Co.,
Washington DC 20005), Environ. Sci. Technol., 27(8),
1476-1481, Aug. 1993.
Using concepts from the fields of history and social science,
a former director of the Board analyzes its operation and
behavioral properties, and discusses the integration of science
and public policy.
Guide to Publishers
Index of Abbreviations