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Global Climate Change DigestArchives of the
Global Climate Change Digest

A Guide to Information on Greenhouse Gases and Ozone Depletion
Published July 1988 through June 1999

FROM VOLUME 6, NUMBER 9, SEPTEMBER 1993

PROFESSIONAL PUBLICATIONS...
IMPACTS OF ELEVATED CO2


Item #d93sep50

Special Issue: Vegetatio, 104, Jan. 1993 (Kluwer Academic Publishers) contains 33 papers from the International Workshop on CO2 and the Biosphere (Nov. 1991). Most report specific studies on individual species, but some have broader applicability such as "Plant Responses to Past Concentrations of CO2" (by F.I. Woodward) and "Environmental Policy and the Greenhouse Effect" (by J.B. Weenink).


Item #d93sep51

Three items from Plant, Cell & Environ., 16(5), June 1993:

"Effects of Increased CO2 Concentration and Temperature on Growth and Yield of Winter Wheat at Two Levels of Nitrogen Application," R.A.C. Mitchell (Rothamsted Exper. Sta., Harpenden, Herts AL5 2JQ, UK), V.J. Mitchell et al., 521-529. The productivity of wheat grown in chambers under light and temperature conditions typical of the U.K. was stimulated at elevated CO2 (692 mM/M). In contrast to other studies, there was no interaction with temperature.

"Growth and Maintenance Components of Leaf Respiration of Cotton Grown in Elevated Carbon Dioxide Partial Pressure," R.B. Thomas (Bot. Dept., Duke Univ., Durham NC 27706), C.D. Reid et al., 539-546. Elevated CO2 (65 Pa) over 30 days stimulated biomass production (107%) and net photosynthetic rates (35-50%).

"Facility for Studying the Effects of Elevated Carbon Dioxide Concentration and Increased Temperature on Crops," D.W. Lawlor (Rothamsted Exper. Sta., Harpenden, Herts AL5 2JQ, UK), R.A.C. Mitchell et al., 603-608. The semi-controlled plant growth facility simulates radiation and temperature conditions in the field. Experiments with winter wheat are described.


Item #d93sep52

"Response of the Biosphere to the Changing Global Environment: Evidence from Historic Record of Biotic Metabolism," C.A.S. Hall (Coll. Environ. Sci., State Univ. New York, Syracuse NY 13210), H. Tian, Y. Qi, World Resour. Rev., 5(2), 207-213, June 1993.

Derives a normalized CO2 curve for yearly biotic metabolism, corrected for seasonal variations in fossil fuel use and for oceanic exchange. Although both photosynthesis and respiration have increased since the early 1970s, their ratio has not changed, suggesting that the CO2 sequestered by photosynthesis is being balanced by the CO2 released by respiration.


Item #d93sep53

Two items from Plant, Cell & Environ., 16(3), Apr. 1993:

"The Effects of Enhanced Ozone and Enhanced Carbon Dioxide Concentrations on Biomass, Pigments and Antioxidative Enzymes in Spruce Needles (Picea abies L.)," A. Polle (Inst. Forstbot. & Baumphysiol., A. Ludwigs Univ., Werderring 8, D-7800 Freiburg i.Br., Ger.), T. Pfirrmann et al., 311-316. Observation of five-year-old spruce trees exposed for one growing season in environmental chambers suggests that elevated CO2 reduces their tolerance to oxidative stress.

"NMR Imaging of Root Water Distribution in Intact Vicia faba L. Plants in Elevated Atmospheric CO2," P.A. Bottomley (GE Res. & Devel. Ctr., Schenectady NY 12309), H.H. Rodgers, S.A. Prior, 335-338. Results suggest that inhibition of water loss from upper roots and lower stems in elevated CO2 may be a mitigating factor in assessing the deleterious effects on crops during dry periods.


Item #d93sep54

"Effects of Doubled Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide Concentration on the Responses of Assimilation and Conductance to Humidity," J.A. Bunce (Clim. Stress Lab., USDA-ARS Agric. Res. Ctr., 10300 Baltimore Ave., Beltsville MD 20715), ibid., 16(2), 189-197, Mar. 1993.

Reports experiments conducted on amaranth, soybean, sunflower and orchard grass grown in controlled environment chambers or outdoors.


Item #d93sep55

"A Strategy for Estimating the Impact of CO2 Fertilization on Soil Carbon Storage," K. Harrison (Lamont-Doherty Earth Observ., Palisades NY 10964), W. Broecker, Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 7(1), 69-80, Mar. 1993.

Develops estimates of carbon turnover rates based on soil radiocarbon measurements, as a step toward exploring the possible impact of CO2 fertilization on the global humus inventory, a candidate for the "missing" carbon sink.


Item #d93sep56

"The Impact of Atmospheric CO2 and Temperature on Stomatal Density: Observations from Quercus robur Lammas Leaves," D.J. Beerling (Dept. Plant Sci., Univ. Sheffield, POB 601, Sheffield SI0 2UQ, UK), W.G. Chaloner, Annals Bot., 71(3), 231-235, Mar. 1993.

Comparison of leaves formed on shoots of plants from three locations in the U.K. shows that temperature overrides the influence of irradiance density and of small seasonal variations in CO2. These results are valuable for interpreting observed stomatal density changes through the Quaternary, and projecting future atmospheric influences.


Item #d93sep57

"Responses of Deciduous Trees to Elevated Atmospheric CO2: Productivity, Phytochemistry, and Insect Performance," R.L. Lindroth (Dept. Entymol., Univ. Wisconsin, Madison WI 53706), K.K. Kinney, C.L. Platz, Ecology, 74(3), 763-777, Mar. 1993.

Reports experiments on quaking aspen, red oak and sugar maple, with the leaf-feeding insects gypsy moth and forest tent caterpillar. Results illustrate that tree productivity and chemistry, and the performance of associated insects, will change under CO2 atmospheres predicted for the next century.


Item #d93sep58

"Detecting the Aerial Fertilization Effect of Atmospheric CO2 Enrichment in Tree-Ring Chronologies," D.A. Graybill (Lab. Tree-Ring Res., Univ. Arizona, Tucson AZ 85721), S.B. Idso, Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 7(1), 81-96, Mar. 1993.

The growth-promoting effects of the historical increase in CO2 are not yet evident in tree-ring records of species which allocate yearly biomass additions among all plant parts. However, species for which most new biomass goes into cambrial enlargement show a 60% growth increase over the past two centuries. Discusses implications for analyzing tree ring trends.


Item #d93sep59

"Plant-Insect-Herbivore Interactions in Elevated CO2 Environments," D.E. Lincoln (Dept. Biol. Sci., Univ. S. Carolina, Columbia SC 29208), E.D. Fajer, R.H. Johnson, Trends Ecol. & Evolution, 8(2), 64-68, Feb. 1993.

Review with 46 references. Examines how changes in plant quality (such as toughness and leaf chemical content) would alter the dynamics of the three-way interactions.


Item #d93sep60

"Stomatal Density Responds to the Glacial Cycle of Environmental Change," D.J. Beerling (Dept. Plant Sci., Univ. Sheffield, POB 601, Sheffield SI0 2UQ, UK), W.G. Chaloner et al., Proc. Roy. Soc. London, Ser. B--Biol. Sci., 251(1331), 133-138, Feb. 22, 1993.

Presents the first record of stomatal density from fossil leaves extending over 140 ka. Stomatal density decreased in response to long-term increases in atmospheric CO2, implying that relaxation of low-CO2 stress has enabled terrestrial plants to exhibit an adaptive response to limited water availability by reducing stomatal density.


Item #d93sep61

"Successional Status, Seed Size, and Responses of Tree Seedlings to CO2, Light, and Nutrients," F.A. Bazzaz (Dept. Organismic Biol., Harvard Univ., Cambridge MA 02138), S.L. Miao, Ecology, 74(1), 104-112, Jan. 1993.

This study on six New England deciduous forest tree species emphasizes the importance of plant species and other environmental factors in modifying the response of plants to elevated CO2, and suggests that seedling regeneration in New England forests may be altered in a future high-CO2 environment.


Item #d93sep62

"Expansion of C4 Ecosystems as an Indicator of Global Ecological Change in the Late Miocene," T.E. Cerling (Dept. Geol., Univ. Utah, Salt Lake City UT 84112), Y. Wang, J. Quade, Nature, 361(6410), Jan. 28, 1993.

Studies of paleovegetation from paleosols, and of paleodiet from fossil tooth enamel indicate a rapid expansion of C4 biomass starting 7 to 5 million years ago. Proposes that the global expansion of C4 biomass may be related to lower atmospheric CO2 levels because C4 photosynthesis is favored over C3 photosynthesis at low CO2.


Item #d93sep63

Three items from Plant, Cell & Environ., 16(1), Jan. 1993:

"Mathematical Models of the Photosynthetic Response of Tree Stands to Rising CO2 Concentrations and Temperatures," R.E. McMurtrie (Sch. Biol. Sci., Univ. New South Wales, POB 1, Kensington, NSW 2033, Australia), Y.-P. Wang, 1-13. A commissioned review comparing two published models of canopy photosynthesis, MAESTRO and BIOMASS, which differ in the level of detail used to represent canopy structure and the radiation environment.

"Feedback Limitation of Photosynthesis of Phaseolus vulgaris L. Grown in Elevated CO2," F.X. Socias, H. Medrano, T.D. Sharkey (Dept. Bot., Univ. Wisconsin, Madison WI 53706), 81-86. Photosynthesis was unaffected by elevated CO2, apparently because of feedback inhibition as judged by a lack of response to removing O2 from the airstream.

"Effects of Atmospheric CO2 Enrichment on Early Growth of Vivia faba, a Plant with Large Cotyledons," K.M. Radoglou, P.G. Jarvis (Inst. Ecol., Darwin Bldg., Univ. Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH9 3JU, UK), 93-98. After 45 days, there were no positive effects of CO2 enrichment on seedling growth. In contrast to results from similar experiments, it seems that the initial growth is under internal control such that CO2 level has no effect.


Item #d93sep64

"Effects of Elevated CO2 and Climate Variables on Plants," B.A. Kimball (U.S. Water Conserv. Lab., 4331 E. Bdwy., Phoenix, Ariz. 85040), J.R. Mauney et al., J. Soil & Water Conserv., 48(1), 9-14, Jan.-Feb. 1993.

A review with 28 references which concludes that, in the absence of climate change, a doubling of CO2 would probably increase plant growth and yields by about 30%. Presents other conclusions that will influence agricultural productivity, water requirements and land use patterns.


Item #d93sep65

"Leaf Conductance and Rate of Crop Transpiration of Greenhouse-Grown Sweet Pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) as Affected by Carbon Dioxide," E.M. Nederhoff (Glasshouse Crops Res. Sta., POB 8, 2670 AA Naaldwijk, Neth.), A.A. Rijsdijk, R. Degraaf, Scientia Horticulturae, 52(4), 283-301, Dec. 1992. Experiments used CO2 in the range 300-1100 mM/M.


Item #d93sep66

Two items from Agric. For. Meteor., 60(3-4), Aug. 31, 1992:

"Aboveground Inventory of Sour Orange Trees Exposed to Different Atmospheric CO2 Concentrations for Three Full Years," S.B. Idso (U.S. Water Conserv. Lab., 4331 E. Bdwy., Phoenix, Ariz. 85040), B.A. Kimball, 145-151. Trees grown in open-top chambers with an extra 300 cm3/m3 of CO2 reveal a sustained beneficial impact: nearly 100% more branches, 75% more leaves, and 160% more trunk and branch volume.

"Response of Rice to Carbon Dioxide and Temperature," J.T. Baker (Agron. Dept., Univ. Florida, Gainesville FL 32611), L.H. Allen Jr., K.J. Boote, 153-166. Rice plants were grown for a season in outdoor, naurally sunlit, controlled-environment chambers at 330 and 660 mM/M CO2 and daytime temperatures of 28-40ĚC. Grain yields were affected much more by temperature than by CO2, suggesting reduced grain yields are possible in some areas if air temperatures increase, especially under conditions of low solar irradiance.

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