February 28, 2007
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FROM VOLUME 7, NUMBER 8, AUGUST 1994
REPORTS... ENERGY POLICY
The following three reports have been produced by
the International Energy Agency of OECD. The first two are among
a series of quadrennial reviews of the policies of OECD member
countries. Energy Policies of IEA Countries, a summary volume
including all of this year's reviews (Austria, Denmark, Germany,
Greece, U.K., U.S.), will be published this year.
Energy Policies: The Federal Republic of Germany, 1994
Review. Germany should assess the contribution and
cost-effectiveness of measures it plans to use to achieve
greenhouse gas targets, and be prepared to take additional steps
if necessary. Suggests reform of coal policies, and improved
energy efficiency in the industrial and transportation sectors.
Energy Policies: The United Kingdom, 1994 Review. The
U.K. should be able to reduce its greenhouse gas emissions to
1990 levels by the year 2000, and has already implemented some
novel policies, particularly in restructuring the electricity
industry. However, energy use is growing rapidly in the energy
sector, and steps needed in other sectors to counter these
greenhouse gas emissions could incur greater costs or require
Energy in Developing Countries: A Sectoral Analysis,
1994, $42/FF290/DM75. Examines recent trends in energy demand in
21 of the largest energy consumers in Asia, Latin America and
Africa. Improved energy efficiency provides the greatest
potential for limiting increases in energy demand in the
developing countries without compromising development
aspirations. The transitions from biomass consumption by
households to commercial energy will be a major factor driving
future energy consumption.
This and the following report outline ways in which
the World Bank is changing how it does business in the energy
sector. Obtain from World Bank Book Store, 1818 H St. NW,
Washington DC 20433 (202-473-2941), or designated distributors in
The World Bank's Role in the Electric Power Sector:
Policies for Effective Institutional, Regulatory, and Financial
Reform, 84 pp., 1994, $6.95. Recommends several new policies
to improve the performance of the electric power sector in
Energy Efficiency and Conservation in the Developing World:
The World Bank's Role, 104 pp., 1994, $6.95. Explores why
energy demand and production in developing countries are up, but
efficiencies of production and consumption are falling behind.
Identifies factors that account for differences in efficiency
between developing and industrial countries, and sets forth
strategies to promote efficiency.
A New Power Base: Renewable Energy Policies for
the Nineties and Beyond, K. Kozloff, R. Dower, 196 pp., 1994,
$24.95. WRI (World Resour. Inst.) Publications, POB 4852, Hampden
Sta., Baltimore MD 21211 (800-822-0504 or 410-516-6963); Drake
Marketing Services, St. Fagan's Rd., Fairwater, Cardiff, Wales
CF5 3AE, UK (tel: 02-22-56033).
Identifies economic, regulatory and institutional barriers to
greater reliance on renewable sources and evaluates various
public policy strategies for overcoming these hurdles.
Energy for Tomorrow's World: A Canadian
Perspective, 1994, 12 pp., Can$10. Energy Council of Canada,
30 Colonnade Rd., S. 400, Nepean ON K2E 7J6, Can. (613-952-6469).
Interprets the findings of the recent World Energy Council
report in terms of their relevance to the Canadian energy
situation. The unilateral imposition of a carbon tax in Canada
for stabilizing greenhouse gas emissions is not necessary or
appropriate at this time. Proposes an industry-driven task force
to explore strategies for addressing Canada's responsibilities in
assisting developing countries, while fostering its commercial
Obtain the following from ACEEE (American Council
for an Energy-Efficient Economy), 2140 Shattuck Ave., S. 202,
Berkeley CA 94704 (510-549-9914).
Market Transformation Strategies to Promote End-Use
Efficiency, S. Nadel, H. Geller, 50 pp., 1994, $10. Market
transformation is a process by which the energy efficiency of all
new appliances, buildings, vehicles or other technologies
increases over a period of years. Presents a conceptual
framework; discusses policies; gives examples.
Energy Choices Revisited: An Examination of the Costs and
Benefits of Maine's Energy Policy, ACEEE et al., 150 pp.,
1994, $30. In this state, which has been a leader in the
development of energy-efficiency technologies, alternative energy
policies have helped limit utility rate increases. The renewable
energy and energy efficiency industries have provided jobs and
Energy Savings and Job Impacts from the Proposed Energy Tax,
S. Laitner, 20 pp., 1993, $6. Uses the energy tax proposed by the
Clinton Administration as an example to illustrate the importance
of considering consumer response and of reducing energy use.
Disputes the claim that a broad-based energy tax might hurt the
Federal Energy Subsidies: Energy, Environmental, and Fiscal
Impacts, D.N. Koplow, 91 pp., 1993, $20. Analysis of 1989 data
(the most recent that is suitable for this study) shows that U.S.
federal subsidies favor energy supply resources over energy
efficiency by a 35-to-1 ratio, wasting taxpayer money and
contributing to pollution.
Other Nations' Policies to Reduce Oil and Coal
Use in Transport and Industry (GAO/RCED-93-139), 71 pp., May
1993. U.S. General Accounting Office, POB 6015, Gaithersburg MD
Discusses factors that influence the type and amount of energy
that other nations use, and trends in Canada, France, Germany,
Japan and South Korea. Examines policies and programs those
countries use to promote efficient use of fuel.
Guide to Publishers
Index of Abbreviations