February 28, 2007
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Archives of the
Global Climate Change Digest
A Guide to Information on Greenhouse Gases and Ozone Depletion
Published July 1988 through June 1999
FROM VOLUME 7, NUMBER 8, AUGUST 1994
PROFESSIONAL PUBLICATIONS... TREND ANALYSIS
"Present Century Snow Core Record of Organolead
Pollution in Greenland," R. Lobinski (Dept. Chem., Univ.
Antwerp, Universiteitsplein 1, 2610 Wilrijk, Belgium), C.F.
Boutron et al., Environ. Sci. & Technol., 28(8),
1467-1471, Aug. 1994.
Gives unambiguous evidence of the gasoline-related sources of
lead in aged Greenland snow and ice during the past 70 years.
Concentrations show an increase from the early 1970s to the late
1980s that correlates with data on the distribution of organolead
species in gasoline, and the consumption of leaded gasoline in
Europe and the U.S.
"River Runoff to the Baltic Sea:
1950-1990," S. Bergström (Swed. Meteor. Inst., S-601 76
Norrköping, Swed.), B. Carlsson, Ambio, 23(4-5), 280-287,
A database is created and combined with an earlier one to
examine the period 1921-1990. The variability of inflow is great;
1981-1990 was the wettest decade, although wet years are also
found in the 1920s.
"Relationship Between Ozone and Temperature
Trends in the Lower Stratosphere: Latitude and Seasonal
Dependencies," J.P. McCormack (Lunar & Planetary Lab.,
Univ. Arizona, Tucson AZ 85721), L.L. Hood, Geophys. Res.
Lett., 21(15), 1615-1618, July 15, 1994.
Uses a 1-D radiative transfer model with fixed dynamical
heating to characterize temperature response to ozone trends.
Results are generally consistent with the hypothesis that
observed lower stratospheric cooling trends are predominantly
determined by reductions in radiative heating from decreased
"Increasing U.S. Streamflow Linked to
Greenhouse Forcing," H.F. Lins (U.S. Geol. Survey, Reston,
Va.), P.J. Michaels, Eos, 75(25), 281, 284-285, June 21,
1994. (See GCCD, p. 2, June 1994.)
"Recent Warming in Global Temperature
Series," P.D. Jones (Clim. Res. Unit, Univ. E. Anglia,
Norwich NR4 7TJ, UK), Geophys. Res. Lett., 21(12),
1149-1152, June 15, 1994. (See GCCD, p. 2, June 1994.)
"Gobi Dust Storms and The Great Green
Wall," F. Parungo (Air Resour. Lab., NOAA, 325 Broadway,
Boulder CO 80303), Z. Li et al., ibid., 21(11), 999-1002,
June 1, 1994.
The recent decrease in dust storms downwind of the Gobi Desert
may be due to vast forests planted across the northern arid lands
of China, and could result in surface warming due to increased
atmospheric water vapor and albedo.
"Next Step for Weekday Warming," D.H.
Lenschow (NCAR, POB 3000, Boulder CO 80307), Nature,
369(6477), 193, May 19, 1994.
If weekly variations in albedo, infrared radiation, or
rainfall could be found, they would support observations of a
weekly temperature cycle in the Northern Hemisphere, and would
suggest the possibility of deducing anthropogenic effects before
climate change occurred.
"Consistency in Long-Term Observations of
Oceans and Ice from Space," I.H.H. Zabel (Byrd Polar Res.
Ctr., Ohio State Univ., Columbus OH 43210), K.C. Jezek, J.
Geophys. Res., 99(C5), 10,109-10,120, May 15, 1994.
Addresses the physics of the small frequency and viewing angle
differences between the scanning multichannel microwave
radiometer (SMMR) and the special sensor microwave imager (SSMI)
to explain brightness differences of as much as 14K in polar
"Rising Temperatures in the Subtropical North
Atlantic Ocean over the Past 35 Years," G. Parrilla (Inst.
Español de Oceanografia, Corazón de Maria 8, 28002 Madrid,
Spain), A. Lavín et al., Nature, 369(6475), 48-51, May 5,
1994. (See GCCD, p. 2, May 1994.)
"A Possible Influence of Recent Polar
Stratospheric Coolings on the Troposphere in the Northern
Hemisphere Winter," K. Kodera (Meteor. Res. Inst., 1-1
Nagamine, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305, Japan), K. Yamazaki, Geophys.
Res. Lett., 21(9), 809-812, May 1, 1994.
Changes in circulation associated with cooling trends in the
stratosphere are compared with those triggered by heating due to
volcanic aerosols, considered as a prototype of response to
external forcing. Changes associated with increasing CO2
may be very different from those considered in the 1990 IPCC
Two items from Intl. J. Climatol., 14(4), May
"Recent Climate Variability in the Vicinity of the
Antarctic Peninsula," J.C. King (Brit. Antarctic Surv., High
Cross, Madingley Rd., Cambridge CB3 0ET, UK), 357-369. Surface
air temperature records from the west coast show more interannual
variability and stronger long-term warming trends than elsewhere
in Antarctica, possibly due to locally strong coupling between
temperatures and sea-ice extent, and to ocean temperature or
"Spatial and Temporal Variations of the January
Circumpolar Vortex over the Northern Hemisphere," R.E. Davis
(Dept. Environ. Sci., Univ. Virginia, Charlottesville VA 22903),
S.R. Benkovic, 415-428. Principal component analysis of 1947-1990
data indicates that the January circumpolar vortex has expanded
over the past two decades, contrary to an expected decrease in
meridonal temperature gradient as trace gases increase.
"Quantifying Global Warming from the Retreat of
Glaciers," J. Oerlemans (Inst. Atmos. Res., Utrecht Univ.,
Princetonplein 5, 3584 CC Utrecht, Neth.), Science,
264(5156), 243-245, Apr. 8, 1994. (See GCCD, p. 2, May 1994.)
"A GCM Simulation of Global Climate Trends:
1950-1988," I.N. Smith (CSIRO, Pvt.. Bag 1, Mordialloc 3195,
Australia), J. Clim., 7(5), 732-744, May 1994. (See GCCD,
p. 10, July.)
"Global Increase of SF6 Observed in the
Atmosphere," M. Maiss (Inst. Umweltphys., Univ. Heidelberg,
Neuenheimer Feld 366, D-69120 Heidelberg, Ger.), I. Levin, Geophys.
Res. Lett., 21(7), 569-572, Apr. 1, 1994. (See GCCD, p. 8,
"Detecting Climate Change Concurrent with
Deforestation in the Amazon Basin: Which Way Has It Gone?"
P.-S. Chu (Sch. Ocean & Earth Sci. & Technol., 2525
Correa Rd., HIG 331, Honolulu HI 96822), Z.-P. Yu, S. Hastenrath, Bull.
Amer. Meteor. Soc., 75(4), 579-583, Apr. 1994.
Examined monthly mean outgoing longwave radiation and monthly
rainfall over the last 15 years. There is little indication for a
rainfall increase associated with deforestation, but there is a
strong signal of enhanced convection in the part of the basin
that contributes the most to total precipitation.
"Hydro-Climatological Trends in the Continental
United States, 1948-88," D.P. Lettenmaier (Dept. Civ. Eng.,
Univ. Washington, Seattle WA 98195), E.F. Wood, J.R. Wallis,
J. Clim., 7(4), 586-607, Apr. 1994.
Data from the Historical Climatology Network and a stream
gauge network show strong spatial and seasonal structure in
trends, including increases in March temperatures, in autumn
precipitation in the central U.S., and in winter streamflow in
the north-central states; and changes in the temperature range.
"Northward Migration of Permafrost Along the
Mackenzie Highway and Climatic Warming," Y.T.J. Kwong (Natl.
Hydrol. Res. Ctr., 11 Innovation Blvd., Saskatoon SK S7N 3H5,
Can.), T.Y. Gan, Clim. Change, 26(4), 399-419, Apr. 1994.
Field surveys show that the southern limit of the permafrost
migrated northward by about 120 km during the past three decades.
The region also experienced warming from 1949 to 1989 that could
have led to the observed migration.
"Is the Radiation Climate in the Baltic Sea
Region Changing?" V. Russak (Inst. Astrophys. & Atmos.
Phys., Toravere, EE2444 Estonia), Ambio, 23(2), 160-163,
Measurements for the past 30 years show decreases in direct
solar radiation, global radiation, reflected radiation, and
atmospheric transparency; and increases in annual values of net
radiation, its long-wave component, and low cloudiness. Concludes
that relatively rapid anthropogenic changes in atmospheric
composition are responsible.
"Climate Change in China," Z. Zhao (Clim.
Res. Ctr., Chin. Acad. Meteor. Sci., Baishiqiaolu No. 46, 100081
Beijing, China), World Resour. Rev., 6(1), 125-147, Mar.
A review for the last 100 years indicates a warming of
0.5-0.7oC, with a substantial effect from urbanization.
Calculations by a simple model of global social-economic
development and climatic impact (referenced to several GCMs)
project from 1990 to 2100 a temperature increase of 3.0oC and a
precipitation increase of 9%, resulting from human activity.
"Trends in Elemental Concentrations of Fine
Particles at Remote Sites in the United States of America,"
R.A. Eldred (Crooker Nuclear Lab., Univ. Calif., Davis CA 95616),
T.A. Cahill, Atmos. Environ., 28(5), 1009-1019, Mar. 1994.
(See GCCD, p. 5, July.)
Two items from Beitr. Phys. Atmos., 67(1),
"Solar Radiation in Germany: Observed Trends and an
Assessment of Their Causes. Part I: Regional Approach," B.
Liepert (Meteor. Inst. Univ. München, Theresienstr. 37, D-80333
München, Ger.), P. Fabian, H. Grassl, 15-29. Observations of
daily global solar radiation showed a decline of 3.7% per decade
in the last 15 to 39 years. Statistical analysis showed that the
effects of changes in cloud parameters and clear sky turbidity
are mainly responsible for the trend.
". . .Part II: Detailed Trend Analysis for Hamburg,"
G.C. Grabbe (M. Planck Inst. Meteor., Bundesstr. 55, D-20146
Hamburg, Ger.), H. Grassl, 31-37. Diffuse solar radiation, an
indicator for trends in solar irradiance, generally decreased
from 1964 to 1989 due to measures to clean the air. However, from
1975 to 1987 it increased slightly due to a doubling of optically
active aerosol particles in the atmospheric boundary layer.
Two items from Clim. Change, 26(1), Jan.
"Long Term (100 yr) Climatic Trends for Agriculture at
Selected Locations in Canada," A. Bootsma (Agric. Canada,
Bldg. 74, Ottawa ON K1A 0C6, Can.), 65-88. Studied 17 annual
climatic parameters for five locations, and calculated forage
aridity indices, first fall frosts, growing degree-days, and
growing season length. Climatic attributes were extremely
variable, making detection of warming or cooling trends
"Global Radiation Climate Change at Seven Sites Remote
from Surface Sources of Pollution," G. Stanhill (Dept.
Agric. Meteor., Agric. Res. Organiz., Bet Dagan, Israel), S.
Moreshet, 89-103. Measurements in 1958, 1965, 1975 and 1985
indicated an annual decrease of 17.67 MJ m-2 yr-1 (0.56 W m-2).
Results confirm earlier findings using data from the World
Radiation Network, and show that this result cannot be attributed
only to local sources of pollution.
"The Volcanic Signal in Goddard Institute for
Space Studies Three-Dimensional Model Simulations," A.
Robock (Dept. Meteor., Univ. Maryland, College Pk. MD 20742), Y.
Liu, J. Clim., 7(1), 44-55, Jan. 1994. (See GCCD, p. 7,
"Climate and Environmental Change at High
Northern Latitudes," L. Kullman (Dept. Phys. Geog., Umeå
Univ., S-901 87 Umeå, Swed.), Progr. Phys. Geog., 18(1),
124-135, 1994. (See GCCD, p. 2, June 1994.)
"Pre-Industrial Particulate Emissions and
Carbon Sequestration from Biomass Burning in North America,"
J.S. Clark (Dept. Bot., Duke Univ., Durham NC 27706), P.D.
Royall, Biogeochem., 24(1), 35-51, Jan. 1994.
Analysis of spatial trends from sediment charcoal suggests
that total emissions of large (>10 µm diameter) charcoal
particles decreased by a factor of three during the twentieth
"Temperature Trends at Coastal Stations in
Eastern Canada," M.R. Morgan (CLIMARCON, 32 Rocklin Dr.,
Dartmouth NS B2X 2S1, Can.), K.F. Drinkwater, R. Pocklington, Clim.
Bull., 27(3), 135-153, Dec. 1993.
In contrast to recent warming over continental Canada, air
temperatures have declined from maxima in the 1940s and 1950s in
the Maritime Provinces, in Newfoundland, along the Labrador
Coast, and on Baffin Island . This decline corresponds to similar
declines in sea surface temperature in much of the North
"Comparison of Trends in the Tropospheric and
Stratospheric Aerosol Optical Depths in the Antarctic," A.
Herber (Wegener Inst. Polar & Mar. Res., Postfach 60 01 49,
D-14401 Potsdam, Ger.), L.W. Thomason et al., J. Geophys. Res.,
98(D10), 18,441-18,447 Oct. 20, 1993. (See GCCD, p. 8, June
"Linear Trends of Temperature at Intermediate
and Deep Layers of the North Atlantic and the North Pacific
Oceans: 1957-1981," J.I. Antonov (State Hydrol. Inst., St.
Petersburg, Russia), J. Clim., 6(10), 1928-1942, Oct.
1993. (See GCCD, p. 2, May 1994.)
"Climate Implications of Observed Changes in
Ozone Vertical Distributions at Middle and High Latitudes of the
Northern Hemisphere," W.-C. Wang (Atmos. Sci. Res. Ctr., 100
Fuller Rd., Albany NY 12205), Y.-C. Zhuang, R.D. Bojkov, Geophys.
Res. Lett., 20(15), 1567-1570, Aug. 6, 1993. (See GCCD, p. 4,
"Solar Radiation and Surface Temperature in
Shanghai City and Their Relation to Urban Island Intensity,"
C.S. Djen (Dept. Geog., E. China Normal Univ., Shanghai 200062,
China), S. Jingchun, W. Lin, Atmos. Environ., 28(12),
2119-2127, July 1994.
Three items from J. Clim., 7(6), June 1994:
"Improved Global Sea Surface Temperature Analyses Using
Optimum Interpolation," R.W. Reynolds (NWS, NOAA, 5200
Authority Rd., Camp Springs MD 20746), T.M. Smith, 929-948.
"Optimal Averaging of Seasonal Sea Surface Temperatures
and Associated Confidence Intervals (1860-1989), T.M. Smith
(addr. immed. above), R.W. Reynolds, C.F. Ropelewski, 949-964.
"Homogenizing Long Norwegian Precipitation Series,"
I. Hanssen-Bauer (Norwegian Meteor. Inst., POB 43--Blindern, 0313
Oslo 3, Nor.), E.J. Forland, 1001-1013.
Guide to Publishers
Index of Abbreviations