February 28, 2007
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Global Climate Change Digest
A Guide to Information on Greenhouse Gases and Ozone Depletion
Published July 1988 through June 1999
FROM VOLUME 7, NUMBER 2, FEBRUARY 1994
Atmospheric CO2 Alters Stomatal Responses to Variable Sunlight in
a C4 Grass," A.K. Knapp (Div. Biol., Ackert Hall, Kansas
State Univ., Manhattan KS 66506), J.T. Fahnestock, C.E. Owensby, Plant,
Cell & Environ., 17(2), 189-195, Feb. 1994.
Stomatal conductance of Andropogon gerardii achieved
new steady state levels after abrupt changes in sunlight more
rapidly at elevated CO2 than at ambient CO2. This resulted from a
reduction in stomatal conductance and more rapid stomatal
responses. The latter enhanced plant water status at elevated
Special Section: "Sink Strength: What Is It and
How Do We Measure It?" J.F. Farrar, Ed. (Sch. Biol. Sci.,
Univ. Coll. N. Wales, Bangor, Gwynedd LL57 2UW, UK), ibid., 16(9),
1013-1046, Dec. 1993.
Fifteen papers present widely varying views about the
definition and measurability of "sink strength," a
concept which helps to predict ability to assimilate nutrients in
competition with alternative sinks. In summary, the editor
suggests applying metabolic control analysis, taking into account
all plant nutrients, not just carbon, and acknowledging that
sinks are an integral part of the whole plant.
additional items from ibid., 16(9), Dec. 1993:
"Response of Small Birch Plants (Betula pendula
Roth.) to Elevated CO2 and Nitrogen Supply," R. Pettersson
(Dept. Ecol. & Environ. Res., Swed. Univ. Agric. Sci., POB
7072, S-750 07 Uppsala, Swed.), A.J.S. McDonald, I. Stadenberg,
1115-1121. Studied the combined effects on several parameters in
a climate chamber by varying the relative addition rate of N up
to optimum rates.
"A Branch Bag Technique for Simultaneous CO2 Enrichment
and Assimilation Measurements on Beech (Fagus sylvatica
L.)," E. Dufrêne, J.-Y. Pontailler (Lab. Ecol. Vég., CNRS
URA 1492 Bât. 362, Univ. Paris Sud-Orsay, 91405 Orsay Cedex,
France), B. Saugier, 1131-1138. Describes a technique for use in
the field which is accurate for daytime, but not nighttime
"A Branch Bag and CO2 Control System for Long-Term CO2
Enrichment of Mature Sitka Spruce [Picea sitchensis
(Bong.) Carr.]," C.V.M. Barton (Inst. Ecol. & Resour.
Mgmt., Darwin Bldg., Univ. Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH9 3JU, UK),
H.S.J. Lee, P.G. Jarvis, 1139-1148. Describes the construction,
performance and some results of a system which avoids the
problems and expense of fumigating whole trees.
and Onto-Morphogenesis of Soybean (Glycine max Merril) in
an Open, Naturally CO2-Enriched Environment," F. Miglietta
(CNR-IATA, Natl. Res. Counc., P. le delle Cascine 18, 50144
Firenze, Italy), A. Raschi et al., ibid., 16(8),
909-918, Nov. 1993.
Discusses the limitations and advantages of experiments in the
open and in an area naturally enriched in CO2 by geothermal
Update II from the Meeting in Madison, Wisconsin, of the
Ecological Society of America," A.M. Gillis, BioSci., 43(10),
677, Nov. 1993.
The meeting addressed the relative success of C3 and C4 plants
as CO2 levels rise, and the implications for the dynamics of
for Measuring Air Flow and Carbon Dioxide Flux in Large, Open-Top
Chambers," J.M. Ham (Dept. Agron., Kansas State Univ.,
Manhattan KS 66506), C.E. Owensby, P.I. Coyne, J. Environ.
Qual., 22(4), 759-766, Oct.-Dec. 1993.
from Plant, Cell & Environ., 16(7), Sep. 1993:
"Foliar Gas Exchange Responses of Two Deciduous Hardwoods
During 3 Years of Growth in Elevated CO2: No Loss of
Photosynthetic Enhancement," C.A. Gunderson (Oak Ridge Natl.
Lab., POB 2008, Oak Ridge TN 37831), R.J. Norby, S.D.
Wullschleger, 797-807. A field study of yellow poplar and white
oak did not detect a decrease in the reponsiveness of
photosynthesis to CO2 enrichment over time.
"Interactive Effects of High Temperature and Elevated
Carbon Dioxide Concentration on Cowpea [Vigna unguiculata
(L.) Walp.]," F.E. Ahmed, A.E. Hall (Dept. Bot. & Plant
Sci., Univ. Calif., Riverside CA 92521), M.A. Madore, 835-842.
Studied the responses of heat-sensitive and heat-tolerant
genotypes to CO2-doubling and high and optimal night temperatures
in growth chambers. Determined that differences in carbohydrate
supplies are associated with differences in heat sensitivity.
"Nitrogen and Phosphorus Dynamics of a Tallgrass Prairie
Ecosystem Exposed to Elevated Carbon Dioxide," C.E. Owensby
(Dept. Agron., Kansas State Univ., Manhattan KS 66506), P.I.
Coyne, L.M. Auen, 843-850. Compared above- and below-ground
biomass of plants grown in ambient and doubled CO2 in open-top
chambers with those grown in unchambered ambient CO2 during the
1989-1991 growing season.
"Long-Term Effects of Elevated CO2 and Nutrients on
Photosynthesis and Rubisco in Loblolly Pine Seedlings," D.T.
Tissue (Dept. Bot., Duke Univ., Durham NC 27708), R.B. Thomas,
B.R. Strain, 859-865. Photosynthetic rates were higher at
elevated CO2 only when plants received supplemental N, and
acclimation to elevated CO2 occurred. Response to future high CO2
levels will depend on soil fertility.
"Natural CO2 Springs in Italy: A Resource for Examining
Long-Term Response of Vegetation to Rising Atmospheric CO2
Concentrations," F. Miglietta (CNR-IATA, P. le delle
Cascine, 18-50144 Firenze, Italy), A. Raschi et al., 873-878.
Describes these geologic vents, their surrounding topography and
vegetation, and their potential for future studies.
in the Mineral Composition of Herbarium Plant Species Collected
During the Last Three Centuries," J. Peñuelas (IRTA,
Carretera Cabrils s/n, 08348 Barcelona, Spain), R. Matamala, J.
Exper. Bot., 44(266), 1523-1525, Sep. 1993.
Mineral CO2 content of present-day plants is lower than for
plants of any other period. Increased CO2 and other anthropogenic
changes are a possible cause.
of a Feedback Mechanism Limiting Plant Response to Elevated
Carbon Dioxide," S. Diaz (Fis. & Nat., Univ. Nac.
Córdoba, C. Correo 495, 5000 Córdoba, Argentina), J.P. Grime et
al., Nature, 364(6438), 616-617, Aug. 12, 1993.
Mineral nutrient constraints on the fertilizer effect of
elevated CO2 can also occur on fertile soil and in the earliest
stages of secondary succession, and may result from mineral
nutrient sequestration by expanded microflora.
Growth in Carbon Dioxide Enriched Air and Its Implications for
Global Carbon Cycling and Maximum Levels of Atmospheric
CO2," S.B. Idso (U.S. Water Conserv. Lab., 4331 E. Broadway,
Phoenix AZ 85040), B.A. Kimball, Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 7(3),
537-556, Sep. 1993.
Laboratory experiments and inferences from scientific
literature indicate that, in the mean, the Earth's trees probably
exhibit a "fertilization effect" due to increased
daytime net photosynthesis and reduction in nighttime dark
of Respiration by High Ambient CO2 and the Resulting Error in
Measurements of Respiration Made with O2 Electrodes," J.
Reuveni (Dept. Bot., Hebrew Univ., Jerusalem 91904, Israel), J.
Gale, A.M. Mayer, Annals Bot., 72(2), 129-131, Aug.
Measurements of respiration quotients of Lemna gibba
and Lactuca sativa in the presence of a CO2 absorber did
not indicate that induced dark fixation of CO2 would occur at the
CO2 levels predicted for the next century. Measurements in the
absence of a CO2 absorber may contain a significant error.
Responses of Two Contrasting Upland Grass Species to Elevated CO2
and Nitrogen Concentration," J.M. Bowler (Sch. Biol. Sci.,
Univ. Manchester, Oxford Rd., Manchester M13 9PL, UK), M.C.
Press, New Phytol., 124(3), 515-522, July 1993.
Two pasture species, Agrostis capillaris L. and Nardus
stricta L., showed an N-dependent, differential response to
elevated CO2 that was species specific.
from Environ. & Exper. Bot., 33(3), July 1993:
"Interactive Effects of Atmospheric CO2 Enrichment and
Light Intensity Reductions on Net Photosynthesis of Sour Orange
Tree Leaves," S.B. Idso (U.S. Water Conserv. Lab., 4331 E.
Broadway, Phoenix AZ 85040), G.W. Wall, B.A. Kimball, 367-375.
Used net photosynthesis and light intensity data to derive
single-leaf and full-canopy light response curves. The direct
effect of increased CO2 more than compensated for the negative
self-shading effect caused by increased leaf area.
"A General Relationship Between CO2-Induced Reductions in
Stomatal Conductance and Concomitant Increases in Foliage
Temperature," S.B. Idso (addr. immed. above), B.A. Kimball
et al., 443-446. Studies of sour orange trees, water hyacinths
and cotton suggest that plants experiencing a greater stomatal
closure in response to enriched CO2 show a greater warming of
their foliage. This relationship may be modified by CO2-induced
changes in leaf chlorophyll content.
Density Responses of Egyptian Olea europaea L. Leaves to
CO2 Change Since 1327 BC," D.J. Beerling (Dept. Animal &
Plant Sci., Univ. Sheffield, POB 601, Sheffield SI0 2UQ, UK),
W.G. Chaloner, Annals Bot., 71(5), 431-435, May
A study of leaves of different ages formed naturally under
similar temperatures but at different CO2 levels confirms
experimental results that stomatal density falls as CO2 levels
from Environ. & Exper. Bot., 33(2), Apr. 1993:
"Air Temperature Modifies the Size-Enhancing Effects of
Atmospheric CO2 Enrichment on Sour Orange Tree Leaves," S.B.
Idso (U.S. Water Conserv. Lab., 4331 E. Broadway, Phoenix AZ
85040), B.A. Kimball, D.L. Hendrix, 293-299. Leaf area, dry
weight and starch content significantly increased with CO2
enrichment. The increase in leaf dry weight varied with
"Starch Accumulation During Hydroponic Growth of Spinach
and Basil Plants Under Carbon Dioxide Enrichment," G.P.
Holbrook (Dept. Biol. Sci., Northern Illinois Univ., Dekalb IL
60115), J. Hansen et al., 313-321. Specific leaf weight and
accumulated starch increased more for basil than spinach.
Increasing inorganic phosphate levels did not appreciably affect
leaf starch accumulation for either.
of Ozone and Carbon Dioxide Mixtures on Two Clones of White
Clover," A.S. Heagle (Dept. Plant Pathol., North Carolina
State Univ., Raleigh NC 27695), J.E. Miller et al., New
Phytol., 123(4), 751-762, Apr. 1993.
Compared an O3-sensitive and an O3-resistant clone. Except at
the highest CO2 concentration (710 ppm), there was no evidence
that CO2 enrichment will protect white clover from tropospheric
and Growth of Wheat Across a Subambient Carbon Dioxide
Gradient," H.W. Polley (ARS, USDA, 808 E. Blackland Rd.,
Temple TX 76502), H.B. Johnson et al., Annals Bot., 71(4),
347-356, Apr. 1993.
Determined CO2 fluxes and evapotranspiration of C3 plants and
soil in a linear chamber containing a gradient of daytime CO2
concentration. Demonstrated the potential impact of past
increases in CO2 on productivity and on water and light use
from ibid., 71(3), Mar. 1993:
"Effects of Light and CO2 on Net Photosynthetic Rates of
Stands of Aubergine and Amaranthus," D.W. Hand
(Horticulture Res. Intl., Worthing Rd., Littlehampton, W. Sussex
BN17 6LP, UK), J.W. Wilson, B. Acock, 209-216. Short-term CO2
enrichment increased the initial slope and the asymptote of the
light response curve for the C3 species (aubergine), but scarcely
increased photosynthesis for the C4 species (Amaranthus)
except at high light flux densities. Aubergine exhibited an
exceptionally high efficiency of light utilization at 1200 vpm
"The Impact of Atmospheric CO2 and Temperature Change on
Stomatal Density: Observations from Quercus robur Lammas
Leaves," D.J. Beerling (Dept. Animal & Plant Sci., Univ.
Sheffield, POB 601, Sheffield, SI0 2UQ, UK), W.G. Chaloner,
231-235. Leaves from three contrasting locations grown under
summer temperatures had reduced stomatal densities and indices
compared with their spring counterparts. Temperature superseded
the influence of irradiance intensity and small seasonal
variations of CO2 in determining stomatal density.
Exchange in Lycopersicon exculentum Mill. Leaves During
Short- and Long-Term Exposures to CO2," L. Woodrow, B.
Grodzinski (Dept. Hort. Sci., Univ. Guelph, Guelph ON N1G 2W1,
Can.), J. Exper. Bot., 44(259), 471-480, Feb. 1993.
CO2 enhanced C2H4 release from tomato leaf tissue in response
to both short-term perturbations in CO2 and long-term growth and
development under high CO2.
Net CO2 Uptake and Leaf Phosphate Concentrations in CO2 Enriched
Clover (Trifolium subterraneum L.) at Three Levels of
Phosphate Nutrition," M.-C. Duchein, A. Bonicel, T. Betsche
(Dépt. Phys. Vég. & Ecosyst., CEA, Ctr. Cadarache, F 13108
St. Paul lez Durance, France), ibid., 44(258),
17-22, Jan. 1993.
At high P levels, the daily rate of net CO2 uptake increased
due to CO2 enrichment, and growth stimulation by high CO2 was
maintained throughout the three-week study. At low P levels,
stimulation by high CO2 was lower and ceased after a few days.
of Elevated CO2 on Canopy Development and Red:Far-Red Ratios in
Two-Storied Stands of Ricinus communis," J.A. Arnone
III (Dept. Bot., Univ. Basel, Schönbeinstr. 6, CH-4056, Switz.),
C. Körner, Oecologia, 94(4), 510-515, 1993.
Discusses the effects on both overstory and understory plants
as they relate to seedling recruitment, competition and plant
Influences of Increased CO2 and Water Supply on Growth, Biomass
Allocation and Water Use Efficiency of Sinapis alba L.
Grown Under Different Wind Speeds," R. Retuerto (Facultad
Biol., Univ. Santiago, 15071 Santiago, Spain), F.I. Woodward, ibid., 94(3),
CO2 enrichment increased the rate of biomass accumulation,
while high wind speed reduced plant growth rates. Wind stress was
lessened by growing in unrestricted water but not by growing in
CO2 and Plant Nitrogen-Use: Is Reduced Tissue Nitrogen
Concentration Size-Dependent?" J.S. Coleman (Biol. Res.
Lab., Syracuse Univ., Syracuse NY 13244), K.D.M. McConnaughay,
F.A. Bazzaz, ibid., 93(2), 195-200.
Experiments with a C3 and a C4 plant suggested a CO2-induced
reduction in plant N concentration may not be due to
physiological changes in N-use efficiency, but is probably size
dependent, a result of accelerated plant growth.
Limitation of the Long-Term Response of Heather [Calluna
vulgaris (L.) Hull] to CO2 Enrichment," S. Woodin (Dept.
Plant & Soil Sci., Univ. Aberdeen, Aberdeen AB9 2UD, UK), B.
Graham et al., New Phytol., 122(4), 635-642, Dec.
Heather grown in peat showed an early negative response to
increased CO2, then a positive response by the end of the
27-month study. Nutrient uptake did not increase with increased
growth, suggesting that growth response to CO2 is limited by
nutrient deficiency and will reach a maximum with a relatively
small increase in CO2.
Growth Promotion in vitro of the VA Mycorrhizal Fungus, Gigaspora
margarita Becker & Hall, by the Activity of Structurally
Specific Flavonoid Compounds Under CO2-Enriched Conditions,"
S. Chabot (Ctr. Rech. Biol. For., Univ. Laval, Ste.-Foy, PQ G1K
7P4, Can.), R. Bel-Rhlid et al., ibid., 122(3),
461-467, Nov. 1992.
Hyphal growth was stimulated by flavonols that possess at
least one hydroxyl group on the B ring, and inhibited by some
Fir Seedling Gas Exchange and Growth in Response to Elevated
CO2," L.J. Samuelson (Atmos. Sci. Div., TVA, Ridgeway Rd.,
Norris TN 37828), J.R. Seiler, Environ. Exper. Bot., 32(4),
351-356, Oct. 1992.
Seedling growth apparently will increase in an elevated-CO2
environment despite changes in gas exchange characteristics.
items from Annals Bot., 70(3), Sep. 1992:
"Influence of Elevated CO2 and Temperature on the
Photosynthesis and Respiration of White Clover Dependent on N2
Fixation," G.J.A. Ryle (AFRC Inst. Grassland & Environ.
Res., N. Wyke, Okehampton, Devon EX20 2SB, UK), J. Woledge et
al., 213-220. Elevated CO2 and temperature increased whole-plant
photosynthesis by >40%, but had no effect on rate of tissue
respiration. Dependence on N2 fixation in root nodules appeared
to have no detrimental effect on photosynthesis under these
"The Effects of CO2 Enrichment and Nutrient Supply on
Growth Morphology and Anatomy of Phaseolus vulgaris L.
Seedlings," K.M. Radoglou (For. Res. Inst., Vassilika
Thessaloniki 57006, Greece), P.G. Jarvis, 245-256. Investigated
how plant growth, leaf anatomy, and chlorophyll, carbohydrate and
starch content are affected in the early phases of growth.
"Response of Photosynthesis, Stomatal Conductance and
Water Use Efficiency to Elevated CO2 and Nutrient Supply in
Acclimated Seedlings of Phaseolus vulgaris L.," K.M.
Radoglou (addr. immed. above), P. Aphalo, P.G. Jarvis, 257-264.
Results support the hypothesis that acclimation results from
unbalanced growth that occurs after the seed reserves are
exhausted and the supply of resources becomes growth limiting.
and Maintenance Respiration in Leaves of Liriodendron
tulipifera L. Exposed to Long-Term Carbon Dioxide Enrichment
in the Field," S.D. Wullschleger (Environ. Sci. Div., Oak
Ridge Natl. Lab., POB 2008, Oak Ridge TN 37831), R.J. Norby, C.A.
Gunderson), New Phytol., 121(4), 515-523, Aug.
Mathematically partitions specific respiration rate into its
growth and maintenance components for yellow poplar leaves after
three years of CO2 enrichment. Discusses implications of observed
changes in respiration.
Influence of CO2 and O3, Singly and in Combination, on Gas
Exchange, Growth and Nutrient Status of Radish (Raphanus
sativus L.)," J.D. Barnes (Dept. Agric. & Environ.
Sci., Ridley Bldg., The Univ., Newcastle upon Tyne NE1 7RU, UK),
T. Pfirrmann, ibid., 121(3), 403-412, July 1992.
Interactions between the gases were complex, but in general,
elevated CO2 at least partly counteracted the detrimental effects
of phytotoxic concentrations of O3, and O3 reduced the impact of
Guide to Publishers
Index of Abbreviations