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Global Climate Change DigestArchives of the
Global Climate Change Digest

A Guide to Information on Greenhouse Gases and Ozone Depletion
Published July 1988 through June 1999

FROM VOLUME 7, NUMBER 2, FEBRUARY 1994

PROFESSIONAL PUBLICATIONS...

  • IMPACTS OF ELEVATED CO2

Item #d94feb40

"Elevated Atmospheric CO2 Alters Stomatal Responses to Variable Sunlight in a C4 Grass," A.K. Knapp (Div. Biol., Ackert Hall, Kansas State Univ., Manhattan KS 66506), J.T. Fahnestock, C.E. Owensby, Plant, Cell & Environ., 17(2), 189-195, Feb. 1994.

Stomatal conductance of Andropogon gerardii achieved new steady state levels after abrupt changes in sunlight more rapidly at elevated CO2 than at ambient CO2. This resulted from a reduction in stomatal conductance and more rapid stomatal responses. The latter enhanced plant water status at elevated CO2.

Special Section: "Sink Strength: What Is It and How Do We Measure It?" J.F. Farrar, Ed. (Sch. Biol. Sci., Univ. Coll. N. Wales, Bangor, Gwynedd LL57 2UW, UK), ibid., 16(9), 1013-1046, Dec. 1993.

Fifteen papers present widely varying views about the definition and measurability of "sink strength," a concept which helps to predict ability to assimilate nutrients in competition with alternative sinks. In summary, the editor suggests applying metabolic control analysis, taking into account all plant nutrients, not just carbon, and acknowledging that sinks are an integral part of the whole plant.


Item #d94feb41

Three additional items from ibid., 16(9), Dec. 1993:

"Response of Small Birch Plants (Betula pendula Roth.) to Elevated CO2 and Nitrogen Supply," R. Pettersson (Dept. Ecol. & Environ. Res., Swed. Univ. Agric. Sci., POB 7072, S-750 07 Uppsala, Swed.), A.J.S. McDonald, I. Stadenberg, 1115-1121. Studied the combined effects on several parameters in a climate chamber by varying the relative addition rate of N up to optimum rates.

"A Branch Bag Technique for Simultaneous CO2 Enrichment and Assimilation Measurements on Beech (Fagus sylvatica L.)," E. Dufrêne, J.-Y. Pontailler (Lab. Ecol. Vég., CNRS URA 1492 Bât. 362, Univ. Paris Sud-Orsay, 91405 Orsay Cedex, France), B. Saugier, 1131-1138. Describes a technique for use in the field which is accurate for daytime, but not nighttime measurements.

"A Branch Bag and CO2 Control System for Long-Term CO2 Enrichment of Mature Sitka Spruce [Picea sitchensis (Bong.) Carr.]," C.V.M. Barton (Inst. Ecol. & Resour. Mgmt., Darwin Bldg., Univ. Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH9 3JU, UK), H.S.J. Lee, P.G. Jarvis, 1139-1148. Describes the construction, performance and some results of a system which avoids the problems and expense of fumigating whole trees.


Item #d94feb42

"Growth and Onto-Morphogenesis of Soybean (Glycine max Merril) in an Open, Naturally CO2-Enriched Environment," F. Miglietta (CNR-IATA, Natl. Res. Counc., P. le delle Cascine 18, 50144 Firenze, Italy), A. Raschi et al., ibid., 16(8), 909-918, Nov. 1993.

Discusses the limitations and advantages of experiments in the open and in an area naturally enriched in CO2 by geothermal vents.


Item #d94feb43

"Research Update II from the Meeting in Madison, Wisconsin, of the Ecological Society of America," A.M. Gillis, BioSci., 43(10), 677, Nov. 1993.

The meeting addressed the relative success of C3 and C4 plants as CO2 levels rise, and the implications for the dynamics of agricultural weeds.


Item #d94feb44

"Technique for Measuring Air Flow and Carbon Dioxide Flux in Large, Open-Top Chambers," J.M. Ham (Dept. Agron., Kansas State Univ., Manhattan KS 66506), C.E. Owensby, P.I. Coyne, J. Environ. Qual., 22(4), 759-766, Oct.-Dec. 1993.


Item #d94feb45

Five items from Plant, Cell & Environ., 16(7), Sep. 1993:

"Foliar Gas Exchange Responses of Two Deciduous Hardwoods During 3 Years of Growth in Elevated CO2: No Loss of Photosynthetic Enhancement," C.A. Gunderson (Oak Ridge Natl. Lab., POB 2008, Oak Ridge TN 37831), R.J. Norby, S.D. Wullschleger, 797-807. A field study of yellow poplar and white oak did not detect a decrease in the reponsiveness of photosynthesis to CO2 enrichment over time.

"Interactive Effects of High Temperature and Elevated Carbon Dioxide Concentration on Cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.]," F.E. Ahmed, A.E. Hall (Dept. Bot. & Plant Sci., Univ. Calif., Riverside CA 92521), M.A. Madore, 835-842. Studied the responses of heat-sensitive and heat-tolerant genotypes to CO2-doubling and high and optimal night temperatures in growth chambers. Determined that differences in carbohydrate supplies are associated with differences in heat sensitivity.

"Nitrogen and Phosphorus Dynamics of a Tallgrass Prairie Ecosystem Exposed to Elevated Carbon Dioxide," C.E. Owensby (Dept. Agron., Kansas State Univ., Manhattan KS 66506), P.I. Coyne, L.M. Auen, 843-850. Compared above- and below-ground biomass of plants grown in ambient and doubled CO2 in open-top chambers with those grown in unchambered ambient CO2 during the 1989-1991 growing season.

"Long-Term Effects of Elevated CO2 and Nutrients on Photosynthesis and Rubisco in Loblolly Pine Seedlings," D.T. Tissue (Dept. Bot., Duke Univ., Durham NC 27708), R.B. Thomas, B.R. Strain, 859-865. Photosynthetic rates were higher at elevated CO2 only when plants received supplemental N, and acclimation to elevated CO2 occurred. Response to future high CO2 levels will depend on soil fertility.

"Natural CO2 Springs in Italy: A Resource for Examining Long-Term Response of Vegetation to Rising Atmospheric CO2 Concentrations," F. Miglietta (CNR-IATA, P. le delle Cascine, 18-50144 Firenze, Italy), A. Raschi et al., 873-878. Describes these geologic vents, their surrounding topography and vegetation, and their potential for future studies.


Item #d94feb46

"Variations in the Mineral Composition of Herbarium Plant Species Collected During the Last Three Centuries," J. Peñuelas (IRTA, Carretera Cabrils s/n, 08348 Barcelona, Spain), R. Matamala, J. Exper. Bot., 44(266), 1523-1525, Sep. 1993.

Mineral CO2 content of present-day plants is lower than for plants of any other period. Increased CO2 and other anthropogenic changes are a possible cause.


Item #d94feb47

"Evidence of a Feedback Mechanism Limiting Plant Response to Elevated Carbon Dioxide," S. Diaz (Fis. & Nat., Univ. Nac. Córdoba, C. Correo 495, 5000 Córdoba, Argentina), J.P. Grime et al., Nature, 364(6438), 616-617, Aug. 12, 1993.

Mineral nutrient constraints on the fertilizer effect of elevated CO2 can also occur on fertile soil and in the earliest stages of secondary succession, and may result from mineral nutrient sequestration by expanded microflora.


Item #d94feb48

"Tree Growth in Carbon Dioxide Enriched Air and Its Implications for Global Carbon Cycling and Maximum Levels of Atmospheric CO2," S.B. Idso (U.S. Water Conserv. Lab., 4331 E. Broadway, Phoenix AZ 85040), B.A. Kimball, Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 7(3), 537-556, Sep. 1993.

Laboratory experiments and inferences from scientific literature indicate that, in the mean, the Earth's trees probably exhibit a "fertilization effect" due to increased daytime net photosynthesis and reduction in nighttime dark respiration.


Item #d94feb49

"Reduction of Respiration by High Ambient CO2 and the Resulting Error in Measurements of Respiration Made with O2 Electrodes," J. Reuveni (Dept. Bot., Hebrew Univ., Jerusalem 91904, Israel), J. Gale, A.M. Mayer, Annals Bot., 72(2), 129-131, Aug. 1993.

Measurements of respiration quotients of Lemna gibba and Lactuca sativa in the presence of a CO2 absorber did not indicate that induced dark fixation of CO2 would occur at the CO2 levels predicted for the next century. Measurements in the absence of a CO2 absorber may contain a significant error.


Item #d94feb50

"Growth Responses of Two Contrasting Upland Grass Species to Elevated CO2 and Nitrogen Concentration," J.M. Bowler (Sch. Biol. Sci., Univ. Manchester, Oxford Rd., Manchester M13 9PL, UK), M.C. Press, New Phytol., 124(3), 515-522, July 1993.

Two pasture species, Agrostis capillaris L. and Nardus stricta L., showed an N-dependent, differential response to elevated CO2 that was species specific.


Item #d94feb51

Two items from Environ. & Exper. Bot., 33(3), July 1993:

"Interactive Effects of Atmospheric CO2 Enrichment and Light Intensity Reductions on Net Photosynthesis of Sour Orange Tree Leaves," S.B. Idso (U.S. Water Conserv. Lab., 4331 E. Broadway, Phoenix AZ 85040), G.W. Wall, B.A. Kimball, 367-375. Used net photosynthesis and light intensity data to derive single-leaf and full-canopy light response curves. The direct effect of increased CO2 more than compensated for the negative self-shading effect caused by increased leaf area.

"A General Relationship Between CO2-Induced Reductions in Stomatal Conductance and Concomitant Increases in Foliage Temperature," S.B. Idso (addr. immed. above), B.A. Kimball et al., 443-446. Studies of sour orange trees, water hyacinths and cotton suggest that plants experiencing a greater stomatal closure in response to enriched CO2 show a greater warming of their foliage. This relationship may be modified by CO2-induced changes in leaf chlorophyll content.


Item #d94feb52

"Stomatal Density Responses of Egyptian Olea europaea L. Leaves to CO2 Change Since 1327 BC," D.J. Beerling (Dept. Animal & Plant Sci., Univ. Sheffield, POB 601, Sheffield SI0 2UQ, UK), W.G. Chaloner, Annals Bot., 71(5), 431-435, May 1993.

A study of leaves of different ages formed naturally under similar temperatures but at different CO2 levels confirms experimental results that stomatal density falls as CO2 levels increase.


Item #d94feb53

Two items from Environ. & Exper. Bot., 33(2), Apr. 1993:

"Air Temperature Modifies the Size-Enhancing Effects of Atmospheric CO2 Enrichment on Sour Orange Tree Leaves," S.B. Idso (U.S. Water Conserv. Lab., 4331 E. Broadway, Phoenix AZ 85040), B.A. Kimball, D.L. Hendrix, 293-299. Leaf area, dry weight and starch content significantly increased with CO2 enrichment. The increase in leaf dry weight varied with temperature.

"Starch Accumulation During Hydroponic Growth of Spinach and Basil Plants Under Carbon Dioxide Enrichment," G.P. Holbrook (Dept. Biol. Sci., Northern Illinois Univ., Dekalb IL 60115), J. Hansen et al., 313-321. Specific leaf weight and accumulated starch increased more for basil than spinach. Increasing inorganic phosphate levels did not appreciably affect leaf starch accumulation for either.


Item #d94feb54

"Effects of Ozone and Carbon Dioxide Mixtures on Two Clones of White Clover," A.S. Heagle (Dept. Plant Pathol., North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh NC 27695), J.E. Miller et al., New Phytol., 123(4), 751-762, Apr. 1993.

Compared an O3-sensitive and an O3-resistant clone. Except at the highest CO2 concentration (710 ppm), there was no evidence that CO2 enrichment will protect white clover from tropospheric O3 effects.


Item #d94feb55

"Physiology and Growth of Wheat Across a Subambient Carbon Dioxide Gradient," H.W. Polley (ARS, USDA, 808 E. Blackland Rd., Temple TX 76502), H.B. Johnson et al., Annals Bot., 71(4), 347-356, Apr. 1993.

Determined CO2 fluxes and evapotranspiration of C3 plants and soil in a linear chamber containing a gradient of daytime CO2 concentration. Demonstrated the potential impact of past increases in CO2 on productivity and on water and light use efficiencies.


Item #d94feb56

Two items from ibid., 71(3), Mar. 1993:

"Effects of Light and CO2 on Net Photosynthetic Rates of Stands of Aubergine and Amaranthus," D.W. Hand (Horticulture Res. Intl., Worthing Rd., Littlehampton, W. Sussex BN17 6LP, UK), J.W. Wilson, B. Acock, 209-216. Short-term CO2 enrichment increased the initial slope and the asymptote of the light response curve for the C3 species (aubergine), but scarcely increased photosynthesis for the C4 species (Amaranthus) except at high light flux densities. Aubergine exhibited an exceptionally high efficiency of light utilization at 1200 vpm CO2.

"The Impact of Atmospheric CO2 and Temperature Change on Stomatal Density: Observations from Quercus robur Lammas Leaves," D.J. Beerling (Dept. Animal & Plant Sci., Univ. Sheffield, POB 601, Sheffield, SI0 2UQ, UK), W.G. Chaloner, 231-235. Leaves from three contrasting locations grown under summer temperatures had reduced stomatal densities and indices compared with their spring counterparts. Temperature superseded the influence of irradiance intensity and small seasonal variations of CO2 in determining stomatal density.


Item #d94feb57

"Ethylene Exchange in Lycopersicon exculentum Mill. Leaves During Short- and Long-Term Exposures to CO2," L. Woodrow, B. Grodzinski (Dept. Hort. Sci., Univ. Guelph, Guelph ON N1G 2W1, Can.), J. Exper. Bot., 44(259), 471-480, Feb. 1993.

CO2 enhanced C2H4 release from tomato leaf tissue in response to both short-term perturbations in CO2 and long-term growth and development under high CO2.


Item #d94feb58

"Photosynthetic Net CO2 Uptake and Leaf Phosphate Concentrations in CO2 Enriched Clover (Trifolium subterraneum L.) at Three Levels of Phosphate Nutrition," M.-C. Duchein, A. Bonicel, T. Betsche (Dépt. Phys. Vég. & Ecosyst., CEA, Ctr. Cadarache, F 13108 St. Paul lez Durance, France), ibid., 44(258), 17-22, Jan. 1993.

At high P levels, the daily rate of net CO2 uptake increased due to CO2 enrichment, and growth stimulation by high CO2 was maintained throughout the three-week study. At low P levels, stimulation by high CO2 was lower and ceased after a few days.


Item #d94feb59

"Influence of Elevated CO2 on Canopy Development and Red:Far-Red Ratios in Two-Storied Stands of Ricinus communis," J.A. Arnone III (Dept. Bot., Univ. Basel, Schönbeinstr. 6, CH-4056, Switz.), C. Körner, Oecologia, 94(4), 510-515, 1993.

Discusses the effects on both overstory and understory plants as they relate to seedling recruitment, competition and plant community structure.


Item #d94feb60

"The Influences of Increased CO2 and Water Supply on Growth, Biomass Allocation and Water Use Efficiency of Sinapis alba L. Grown Under Different Wind Speeds," R. Retuerto (Facultad Biol., Univ. Santiago, 15071 Santiago, Spain), F.I. Woodward, ibid., 94(3), 415-427.

CO2 enrichment increased the rate of biomass accumulation, while high wind speed reduced plant growth rates. Wind stress was lessened by growing in unrestricted water but not by growing in increased CO2.


Item #d94feb61

"Elevated CO2 and Plant Nitrogen-Use: Is Reduced Tissue Nitrogen Concentration Size-Dependent?" J.S. Coleman (Biol. Res. Lab., Syracuse Univ., Syracuse NY 13244), K.D.M. McConnaughay, F.A. Bazzaz, ibid., 93(2), 195-200.

Experiments with a C3 and a C4 plant suggested a CO2-induced reduction in plant N concentration may not be due to physiological changes in N-use efficiency, but is probably size dependent, a result of accelerated plant growth.


Item #d94feb62

"Nutrient Limitation of the Long-Term Response of Heather [Calluna vulgaris (L.) Hull] to CO2 Enrichment," S. Woodin (Dept. Plant & Soil Sci., Univ. Aberdeen, Aberdeen AB9 2UD, UK), B. Graham et al., New Phytol., 122(4), 635-642, Dec. 1992.

Heather grown in peat showed an early negative response to increased CO2, then a positive response by the end of the 27-month study. Nutrient uptake did not increase with increased growth, suggesting that growth response to CO2 is limited by nutrient deficiency and will reach a maximum with a relatively small increase in CO2.


Item #d94feb63

"Hyphal Growth Promotion in vitro of the VA Mycorrhizal Fungus, Gigaspora margarita Becker & Hall, by the Activity of Structurally Specific Flavonoid Compounds Under CO2-Enriched Conditions," S. Chabot (Ctr. Rech. Biol. For., Univ. Laval, Ste.-Foy, PQ G1K 7P4, Can.), R. Bel-Rhlid et al., ibid., 122(3), 461-467, Nov. 1992.

Hyphal growth was stimulated by flavonols that possess at least one hydroxyl group on the B ring, and inhibited by some related compounds.


Item #d94feb64

"Fraser Fir Seedling Gas Exchange and Growth in Response to Elevated CO2," L.J. Samuelson (Atmos. Sci. Div., TVA, Ridgeway Rd., Norris TN 37828), J.R. Seiler, Environ. Exper. Bot., 32(4), 351-356, Oct. 1992.

Seedling growth apparently will increase in an elevated-CO2 environment despite changes in gas exchange characteristics.


Item #d94feb65

Three items from Annals Bot., 70(3), Sep. 1992:

"Influence of Elevated CO2 and Temperature on the Photosynthesis and Respiration of White Clover Dependent on N2 Fixation," G.J.A. Ryle (AFRC Inst. Grassland & Environ. Res., N. Wyke, Okehampton, Devon EX20 2SB, UK), J. Woledge et al., 213-220. Elevated CO2 and temperature increased whole-plant photosynthesis by >40%, but had no effect on rate of tissue respiration. Dependence on N2 fixation in root nodules appeared to have no detrimental effect on photosynthesis under these conditions.

"The Effects of CO2 Enrichment and Nutrient Supply on Growth Morphology and Anatomy of Phaseolus vulgaris L. Seedlings," K.M. Radoglou (For. Res. Inst., Vassilika Thessaloniki 57006, Greece), P.G. Jarvis, 245-256. Investigated how plant growth, leaf anatomy, and chlorophyll, carbohydrate and starch content are affected in the early phases of growth.

"Response of Photosynthesis, Stomatal Conductance and Water Use Efficiency to Elevated CO2 and Nutrient Supply in Acclimated Seedlings of Phaseolus vulgaris L.," K.M. Radoglou (addr. immed. above), P. Aphalo, P.G. Jarvis, 257-264. Results support the hypothesis that acclimation results from unbalanced growth that occurs after the seed reserves are exhausted and the supply of resources becomes growth limiting.


Item #d94feb66

"Growth and Maintenance Respiration in Leaves of Liriodendron tulipifera L. Exposed to Long-Term Carbon Dioxide Enrichment in the Field," S.D. Wullschleger (Environ. Sci. Div., Oak Ridge Natl. Lab., POB 2008, Oak Ridge TN 37831), R.J. Norby, C.A. Gunderson), New Phytol., 121(4), 515-523, Aug. 1992.

Mathematically partitions specific respiration rate into its growth and maintenance components for yellow poplar leaves after three years of CO2 enrichment. Discusses implications of observed changes in respiration.


Item #d94feb67

"The Influence of CO2 and O3, Singly and in Combination, on Gas Exchange, Growth and Nutrient Status of Radish (Raphanus sativus L.)," J.D. Barnes (Dept. Agric. & Environ. Sci., Ridley Bldg., The Univ., Newcastle upon Tyne NE1 7RU, UK), T. Pfirrmann, ibid., 121(3), 403-412, July 1992.

Interactions between the gases were complex, but in general, elevated CO2 at least partly counteracted the detrimental effects of phytotoxic concentrations of O3, and O3 reduced the impact of elevated CO2.

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