February 28, 2007
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Global Climate Change Digest
A Guide to Information on Greenhouse Gases and Ozone Depletion
Published July 1988 through June 1999
FROM VOLUME 7, NUMBER 1, JANUARY 1994
- ANTHROPOGENIC METHANE EMISSIONS
from J. Geophys. Res., 21(1), Jan. 1, 1994:
Dramatic Decrease in the Growth Rate of Atmospheric Methane in
the Northern Hemisphere During 1992," E.J. Dlugokencky
(CMDL, NOAA, 325 Broadway, Boulder CO 80303), K.A. Masaire et
al., Geophys. Res. Lett., 21(1), 45-48, Jan. 1,
Global measurements show that the average trend in 1992 was
only a sixth of that for 1983-1991. A major factor may be
decreased emissions from the former Soviet Union resulting from a
more efficient natural gas system and reduced coal production.
Measurements suggest that modest decreases in anthropogenic
emissions can lead to rapid stabilization of, or a decrease in,
the atmospheric methane burden.
"Methane in Groundwater Used for Japanese Agriculture:
Its Relationship to Other Physico-Chemical Properties and
Possible Tropospheric Source Strength," A. Watanabe (Lab.
Soil Biol. & Chem., Sch. Agric. Sci., Nagoya Univ.,
Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-01, Japan), M. Kimura et al., 41-44.
Agricultural groundwater use released CH4 equivalent to about
1.4% of the production from soil organic matter in rice paddies.
from Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 7(4), Dec. 1993:
"Methane Consumption and Carbon Dioxide Emission in
Tallgrass Prairie: Effects of Biomass Burning and Conversion to
Agriculture," C.M. Tate (Water Resour. Div., USGS, Box
25046, MS 413, Denver CO 80225), R.G. Striegl, 735-748. Compares
measurements on unburned and annually burned tallgrass prairie
and adjacent agricultural plots in Kansas, to determine
influences of land use, soil depth and temperature, and crop
"Terrestrial Ecosystem Production: A Process Model Based
on Global Satellite and Surface Data," C.S. Potter (Johnson
Controls, NASA-Ames, Moffet Field CA 94035), J.T. Randerson et
al., 811-841. The model approach described is aimed at seasonal
resolution of global climatic and edaphic controls on patterns of
terrestrial ecosystem production and soil microbial respiration.
"Methane Flux from Drained Northern Peatlands: Effect of
a Persistent Water Table Lowering on Flux," N.T. Roulet
(Dept. Geog., McGill Univ., Montreal PQ H3A 2K6, Can.), R. Ash et
al., 749-769. Measurements at three diverse sites in Ontario
suggest that a small drop in soil moisture would significantly
reduce CH4 flux from northern peatlands.
Emissions from Municipal Wastewater Treatment Processes,"
P.M. Czepiel (Complex Sys. Res. Ctr., Morse Hall, Univ. New
Hampshire, Durham NH 03824), P.M. Crill, R.C. Harriss, Environ.
Sci. Technol., 27(12), 2472-2477, Nov. 1993. Winter
and summer measurements indicate emissions of 39 g person-1
Production from Global Biomass Burning," W.M. Hao
(Intermountain Res. Sta., USDA For. Serv., POB 8089, Missoula MT
59807), D.E. Ward, J. Geophys. Res., 98(D11),
20,657-20,661, Nov. 20, 1993.
Estimates emissions from tropical, temperate and boreal
regions by source. Tropical areas produce 85% of emissions;
emissions may have increased at least 9% during the past decade
because of increased tropical deforestation and the use of
Methane, Record from a Greenland Ice Core Over the Last 1000
Year," T. Blunier (Phys. Inst., Univ. Bern, Sidlerstr. 5,
3012 Bern, Switz.), J.A. Chappellaz et al., Geophys. Res.
Lett. 20(20), 2219-2222, Oct. 22, 1993.
The beginning of the anthropogenic methane increase can be set
between 1750 and 1800. Specific reasons are hard to deduce, but
population data from China suggest that humans may have
influenced the methane cycle before industrialization.
from Geophys. Res. Lett., 20(19), Oct. 8, 1993:
"Estimation of Methane Discharge from a Plume: A Case of
Landfill," Y. Tohjima (Lab. Earthquake Chem., Univ. Tokyo,
Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113, Japan), H. Wakita, 2067-2070. Estimates
emissions of 3-5 x 108 g/day for a 2 x 106 m2 landfill.
"First Records of a Field Experiment on Fertilizer
Effects on Methane Emission from Rice Fields in Hunan Province
(PR China)," R. Wassmann (Fraunhofer Inst.,
Garmisch-Partenkirchen, Ger.), M.X. Wang et al., 2071-2074.
Measurements indicate that extensive use of specific chemical
fertilizers and the application of sludge from biogas generators
could reduce emissions from rice fields.
from Atmos. Environ., 27A(11), Aug. 1993:
"An Open Chamber Technique for Determination of Methane
Emission from Stored Livestock Manure," S. Husted (Danish
Inst. Plant Sci., POB 23, DK-8830 Tjele, Denmark), 1635-1642.
Emissions are highly variable, and annual estimates should be
based on frequent (at least weekly) measurements.
"Methane Flux Measurements from Paddy Fields in the
Tropical Indian Region," S. Lal (Phys. Res. Lab., Ahmedabad,
India 380 009), S. Venkataramani, B.H. Subbaraya, 1691-1694.
Results give values higher than reported for some other regions
of India, but lower than for China.
Emissions from Louisiana First and Ratoon Crop Rice," C.W.
Lindau (Wetland Biogeochem. Inst., Louisiana State Univ., Baton
Rouge LA 70803), P.K. Bollich, Soil Sci., 156(1),
42-48, July 1993. Field experiments investigated the effects of
fertilizers and rice straw left from first harvest.
Dioxide and Methane Fluxes from Drained Peat Soils, Southern
Quebec," S. Glenn (Dept. Geog., McGill Univ., Montreal PQ
H3A 2K6, Can.), A. Hayes, T. Moore, Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 7(2),
247-258, July 1993. Results suggest that drainage of temperate
peatlands has reduced methane emissions by 0.6 - 1 x 1012 g/yr.
Transport of Methane from Soil to Atmosphere as Mediated by Rice
Plants," H.A.C. Denier van der Gon (Dept. Soil Sci., Agric.
Univ. Wageningen, POB 37, 6700 AA Wageningen, Neth.), N. van
Breemen, Biogeochem., 21(3), 177-190, June 1993.
Results suggest that the rate-limiting step in plant-mediated
methane transport is diffusion of CH4 across the root/shoot
Study on Methane Production Rate in Rice Paddy Soil,"
Shangguan Xingjian (Inst. Atmos. Phys., Chinese Acad. Sci.,
Beijing 100029, China), W. Mingxing et al., Chinese J. Atmos.
Sci., 17(3), 313-320, 1993.
Observations show a wide variation in production at different
soil depths, no correlation with soil temperature, and dependence
on other factors such as fertilizers and season.
Methane Emissions from Animals," C. Anastasi (Dept. Chem.,
Univ. York, York Y01 5DD, UK), V.J. Simpson, J. Geophys. Res., 98(D4),
7181-7186, Apr. 20, 1993.
Emissions from cattle, sheep and buffalo, modeled based on
population projections, future land availability and nutritional
content of feedstocks, are estimated to increase from 84 Tg/yr in
1990 to 119 Tg/yr by 2025.
Affecting Methane Production Under Rice," C.C. Delwiche
(Dept. Land Resour., Univ. California, Davis CA 95616), R.J.
Cicerone, Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 7(1), 143-156,
Reports greenhouse and laboratory studies over three growing
seasons to study factors such as soil texture, exogenous organic
matter, nitrogen and sulfate ion, and water management.
Production and Its Fate in Paddy Fields. 3. Effects of
Percolation on Methane Flux Distribution to the Atmosphere and
the Subsoil," J. Murase (Sch. Agric., Nagoya Univ.,
Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 46401, Japan), M. Kimura, S. Kuwatsuka, Soil
Sci. & Plant Nutrition, 39(1), 63-70, Mar. 1993.
of Methane Emissions from Chinese Rice Fields (Zhejiang Province)
as Influenced by Fertilizer Treatment," R. Wassmann
(Fraunhofer Inst. Atmos. Umweltforsch., Garmisch-Partenkirchen,
Ger.), H. Sch?tz et al., Biogeochem., 20(2),
83-101, Feb. 1993.
Data from an automatic field system showed pronounced
interannual variations, and indicated total emissions from
Chinese rice fields of 18-28 Tg/yr.
on Methane Emission from China," W. Mingxing (Inst. Atmos.
Phys., Chinese Acad. Sci., Beijing 100029, China), D. Aiguo et
al., Chinese J. Atmos. Sci., 17(1), 49-62, 1993.
Examination of emissions from rice fields and other sources
leads to an estimate for 1988 of 35 x 1012 g, half from rice
fields. This could increase to 40 x 1012 g by the year 2000, due
to increases from ruminants and coal mines.
Production by Sheep and Cattle in Australia," D.J. Minson
(Cunningham Lab., CSIRO, 306 Carmody Rd., St. Lucia, Brisbane QLD
4067, Australia), Tellus, 45B(1), 86-88, Feb. 1993.
An estimate based on local feed data is 43% higher than
previous ones, indicating the need to reassess methane production
from ruminants in other countries.
from Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 6(3), Sep. 1992:
"Methane Emissions from California Rice Paddies with
Varied Treatments," R.J. Cicerone (Dept. Geosci., Univ.
California, Irvine CA 92717), C.C. Delwiche et al., 233-248.
"Methane Emission from Rice Fields: The Effect of Flood
Water Management," R.L. Sass (Dept. Ecol., Rice Univ.,
Houston TX 77251), F.M. Fisher et al., 249-262.
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Index of Abbreviations