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Global Climate Change Digest

A Guide to Information on Greenhouse Gases and Ozone Depletion
Published July 1988 through June 1999

FROM VOLUME 7, NUMBER 1, JANUARY 1994

PROFESSIONAL PUBLICATIONS...

  • STRATOSPHERIC OZONE CHEMISTRY AND DYNAMICS

Item #d94jan62

Three items from Geophys. Res. Lett., 20(23), Dec. 14, 1993.

"Contribution to the Ozone Trend of Heterogeneous Reactions of ClONO2 on the Sulfate Aerosol Layer," G. Pitari (Dip. Fis., Univ. L'Aquila, 67010 Coppito L'Aquila, Italy), 2663-2666. Used a 2-D model to calculate the relative importance of the reactions of N2O5 and water, ClONO2 with HCl, and ClONO2 with water.

"Altitude Dependence of Stratospheric Ozone Trends Based on Nimbus 7 SBUV Data," L.L. Hood (Lunar & Planet. Lab., Univ. Arizona, Tuscon AZ 85721), R.D. McPeters et al., 2667-2670. Significant ozone losses occur at latitudes >20· in both hemispheres. Observed latitude dependence is qualitatively consistent with model predictions.

"Northern Hemisphere Mid-Stratosphere Vortex Processes Diagnosed from H2O, N2O and Potential Vorticity," W.A. Lahoz (Dept. Meteor., Edinburgh Univ., Edinburgh, Scotland EH9 3JZ, UK), E.S. Carr et al., 2671-2674. Measurements show little large-scale mixing at the vortex edge, descent of dry air from the mesosphere, descent of moist air from the stratosphere, and a reduction in vortex size.


Item #d94jan63

Seven items from J. Geophys. Res., 98(D11), Nov. 20, 1993:

"A Two-Dimensional Model with Coupled Dynamics, Radiation, and Photochemistry. 1. Simulation of the Middle Atmosphere," M.K.W. Ko (Atmos. Environ. Res. Inc., 840 Memorial Dr., Cambridge MA 02139), H.R. Schneider et al., 20,429-20,440. Kyy values and parameterization of the tropospheric heating rate in the model reflect asymmetry between the Southern and Northern Hemispheres, and allow the model to successfully simulate the observed asymmetry in the column abundance of the springtime ozone maxima.

"...2. Assessment of the Response of Stratospheric Ozone to Increased Levels of CO2, N2O, CH4 and CFC," H.R. Schneider (Div. Appl. Sci., Pierce Hall, Harvard Univ., Cambridge MA 02138), M.K.W. Ko et al., 20,441-20,449. CO2 doubling increases global ozone content. A CFC increase causes a loss of ozone, which is less pronounced if the other gases also increase. Ozone losses show a north-south asymmetry, being larger in the high latitudes of the Southern Hemisphere.

"Effective Bass-Paur 1985 Ozone Absorption Coefficients for Use with Dobson Ozone Spectrophotometers," W.D. Komhyr (CIRES, Univ. Colorado, Boulder CO 80309), C.L. Mateer, R.D. Hudson, 20,451-20,465. The new coefficients, which have been sanctioned by the WMO, yield total ozone amounts 2.6% smaller than values obtained up through 1991.

"Fourier Transform-Infrared Studies of Thin H2SO4/H2O Films: Formation, Water Uptake, and Solid-Liquid Phase Changes," A.M. Middlebrook (CIRES, Campus Box 216, Univ. Colorado, Boulder CO 80309), L.T. Iraci et al., 20,473-20,481. Results show that H2SO4 films absorb water while cooling in the presence of water vapor, that films crystallize mainly as sulfuric acid tetrahydrate, and that once frozen, H2SO4 aerosols melt at temperatures 30 K colder than previously thought.

"A Possible Role of Galactic Cosmic Rays in Chlorine Activation During Polar Night," R. Müller (Airchem. Dept., M. Planck Inst. Chem., POB 3060, D-6500 Mainz, Ger.), P.J. Crutzen, 20,483-20,490. Suggests that the production of NO radicals by the action of galactic cosmic rays enhances the reaction of N2O5 with HCl to produce active chlorine. The rays also form OH radicals which further augment HCl processing.

"Retrieval of Stratospheric O3, HNO3 and ClONO2 Profiles from 1992 MIPAS-B Limb Emission Spectra: Method, Results, and Error Analysis," T. von Clarmann (Inst. Meteor. & Klim., Univ. Karlsruhe, Postfach 3640, D-76021 Karlsruhe, Ger.), H. Fischer et al., 20,495-20,506.

"Stratospheric OH Measurements with a Far-Infrared Limb Observing Spectrometer," H.M. Pickett (Jet Propulsion Lab., 4800 Oak Grove Dr., Pasadena CA 91109), D.B. Peterson, 20,507-20,515. Discusses concept and calibration as well as measurements.


Item #d94jan64

"Solubility of HCl in Sulfuric Acid at Stratospheric Temperatures," L.R. Williams (Molecular Phys. Lab., SRI Intl., 333 Ravenswood Ave., Menlo Pk. CA 94025), D.M. Golden, Geophys. Res. Lett., 20(20), 2227-2230, Oct. 22, 1993. Measurements show that very little HCl will dissolve in stratospheric sulfate aerosol particles.


Item #d94jan65

Five items from J. Geophys. Res., 98(D10), Oct. 20, 1993:

"Characteristics of Wintertime and Autumn Nitric Acid Chemistry as Defined by Limb Infrared Monitor of the Stratosphere (LIMS) Data," R.B. Rood (NASA-Goddard, Greenbelt MD 20771), A.R. Douglass et al., 18,533-18,545. The 3-D model can simulate observations if it incorporates chemical processes with timescales shorter than the advective timescale that maintains nitric acid.

"Effect of Mount Pinatubo Aerosols on Total Ozone Measurements from Backscatter Ultraviolet (BUV) Experiments," P.K. Bhartia (address immed. above), J. Herman et al., 18,547-18,554. Errors in total ozone derived from the aerosol-contaminated radiances are generally less than 2% and vary in magnitude and in sign with angles of observation.

"Anomalous Antarctic Ozone during 1992: Evidence for Pinatubo Volcanic Aerosol Effects," D.J. Hofmann (NOAA CMDL, 325 Broadway, Boulder CO 80303), S.J. Oltmans, 18,555-18,561. H2SO4 droplets, which formed in the stratosphere after the eruption and were trapped in the south polar vortex, are the most likely cause of the unusually severe Antarctic ozone depletion.

"Chaotic Advection in the Stratosphere: Implications for the Dispersal of Chemically Perturbed Air from the Polar Vortex," R.B. Pierce (NASA-Langley, Hampton VA 23665), T.D.A. Fairlie, 18,589-18,595. Provides evidence for chaotic advection near the edge of the polar vortex, which leads to rapid mixing of vortex air with tropical and midlatitude air.

"Electron Scavenging of Stratospheric Chlorine to Reduce Ozone Depletion: Will It Work?" S.S. Prasad (Creative Res. Enterprises, POB 174, Pleasanton CA 94566), 18,597-18,598. The recently proposed scheme may be less efficient than originally thought due to the rapid photodetachment of Cl-1 by sunlight.


Item #d94jan66

Three items from Geophys. Res. Lett., 20(19), Oct. 8, 1993:

"Intercomparison of Total Ozone Measured at Low Sun Angles by the Brewer and Dobson Spectrophotometers at Scott Base, Antarctica," S.E. Nichol (Natl. Inst. Water & Atmos. Res., POB 31311, Lower Hutt, N.Z.), C. Valenti, 2051-2054. Dobson and Brewer data are both generally within ±5% of the TOMS value.

"Determination of Total Ozone over Mauna Loa Using Very High Resolution Infrared Solar Spectra," S.J. David (Dept. Phys., Univ. Denver, Denver CO 80208), S.A. Beaton et al., 2055-2058. Fourier transform infrared and Dobson data agreed to within 2.7%.

"Stratospheric Trace Gas Concentrations in the Arctic Polar Night Derived by FTIR-Spectroscopy with the Moon as IR Light Source," J. Notholt (Alfred Wegener Inst. Polar & Meeresforsch., Postfach 600149, D-14401 Potsdam, Ger.), R. Neuber et al., 2059-2062. Obtained column densities of trace gases during the week around full moon. Aerosol lidar measurements showed that concentrations of the gases are strongly influenced by polar stratospheric clouds.


Item #d94jan67

Three related items from Nature, 365(6446), Oct. 7, 1993:

"Mixing and Matching," A. Plumb (Dept. Earth Sci., Mass. Inst. Technol., Cambridge MA 02139), 490-491. Discusses the next two papers.

"Stratospheric Transport from the Tropics to Middle Latitudes by Planetary-Wave Mixing," W.J. Randel (NCAR, POB 3000, Boulder CO 80307), J.C. Gille et al., 533-535. Maps of N2O and H2O mixing ratios obtained by satellite show planetary-scale "tongues" of tropical stratospheric air extending into middle latitudes, in sequences of irreversible mixing which could be responsible for significant latitudinal transport.

"Subtropical Stratospheric Mixing Linked to Disturbances in the Polar Vortices," D.W. Waugh (Ctr. Meteor., Mass. Inst. Technol., Cambridge MA 02139), 535-537. High-resolution contour-trajectory calculations suggest that tongues of tropical air in the previous paper are associated with disturbances of the stratospheric polar vortices.


Item #d94jan68

Two items from Geophys. Res. Lett., 20(18), Sep. 15, 1993:

"Decrease of Stratospheric NO2 at 44·N Caused by Pinatubo Volcanic Aerosols," M. Koike (Solar-Terres. Environ. Lab., Nagoya Univ., Toyokawa, Aichi, Japan), Y. Kondo et al., 1975-1978. Lidar and SAGE II satellite data show that major reductions in NO2 generally correspond to the arrival of volcanic aerosols above 25 km.

"Record Low Ozone Values over Canada in Early 1993," J.B. Kerr (Atmos. Environ. Serv., 4905 Dufferin St., Downsview ON M3H 5T4, Can.), D.I. Wardle, D.W. Tarasick, 1979-1982. Ozone levels were 11-17% below normal at the same altitudes where aerosols from the Mount Pinatubo eruption were observed.


Item #d94jan69

"Physical Chemistry of the H2SO4/HNO3/H2O System: Implications for Polar Stratospheric Clouds [PSCs]," M.J. Molina (Dept. EAPS, 54-1320, Mass. Inst. Technol., Cambridge MA 02139), R. Zhang et al., Science, 261(5127), 1418-1423, Sep. 10, 1993.

Laboratory experiments show that H2SO4/H2O aerosols absorb HNO3 vapor leading to crystallization of nitric acid trihydrate (NAT). The frozen particles grow to form PSCs by condensation of additional HNO3 and H2O. Chlorine radical precursors are formed readily on NAT, ice crystals, liquid H2SO4 and H2SO4 hydrates.


Item #d94jan70

Two items from Geophys. Res. Lett., 20(17), Sep. 3, 1993:

"The Performance of a New Instrument for In Situ Measurements of ClO in the Lower Stratosphere," D.W. Toohey (Dept. Geosci., Univ. Calif., Irvine CA 92717), L.M. Avallone et al., 1791-1794. The instrument is light-weight, yet precise and accurate.

"Balloon-Borne In Situ Measurements of ClO and Ozone: Implications for Heterogeneous Chemistry and Mid-Latitude Ozone Loss," L.M. Avallone (Dept. Chem., Harvard Univ., Cambridge MA 02138), D.W. Toohey et al., 1795-1798. Incorporation into a model of N2O5 hydrolysis on sulfate aerosols improves agreement between in situ measurements and model calculations.


Item #d94jan71

Special Section: "Arctic Ozone: AASE II Observations," Science, 261(5125), Aug. 27, 1993.

"Probing Stratospheric Ozone," J.M. Rodriguez (Atmos. Environ. Res. Inc., 840 Memorial Dr., Cambridge MA 02139), 1128-1129. Results in this summary paper including a correlation between high concentrations of ClO and polar stratospheric cloud formation; first-time in situ measurements of HCl; the relative importance of HCl in the midlatitude atmosphere; increased ClO after a Pinatubo eruption; consistency of results among different observations and methods to derive ozone losses; qualitative consistency of results with UARS measurements.

"Chlorine Chemistry on Polar Stratospheric Cloud Particles in the Arctic Winter," C.R. Webster, R.D. May et al., 1130-1134.

"The Seasonal Evolution of Reactive Chlorine in the Northern Hemisphere Stratosphere," D.W. Toohey (Dept. Geosci., Univ. Calif., Irvine CA 92717), L.M. Avallone et al., 1134-1136.

"Heterogeneous Reaction Probabilities, Solubilities, and the Physical State of Cold Volcanic Aerosols," O. Toon (NASA Ames Res. Ctr., Moffett Field CA 94035), E. Browell et al., 1136-1140.

"In Situ Observations of Aerosol and Chlorine Monoxide After the 1991 Eruption of Mount Pinatubo: Effect of Reactions on Sulfate Aerosol," J.C. Wilson (Dept. Eng., Univ. Denver, Denver CO 80208), H.H. Jonsson et al., 1140-1143.

"Stratospheric Meteorological Conditions in the Arctic Polar Vortex, 1991 to 1992," P. Newman (NASA-Goddard, Greenbelt MD 20771), L.R. Lait et al., 1143-1146.

"Chemical Loss of Ozone in the Arctic Polar Vortex in the Winter of 1991-1992," R.J. Salawitch (Div. Appl. Sci., Harvard Univ., Cambridge MA 02138), S.C. Wofsy et al., 1146-1149.

"Ozone Loss Inside the Northern Polar Vortex During the 1991-1992 Winter," M.H. Proffitt (CIRES, Univ. Colorado, Boulder CO 80309), K. Aikin et al., 1150-1154.

"Ozone and Aerosol Changes During the 1991-1992 Airborne Arctic Stratospheric Expedition," E.V. Browell (NASA-Langley, Hampton VA 23665), C.F. Butler et al., 1155-1158.


Item #d94jan72

"A Retrieval Method for Atmospheric Composition from Limb Emission Measurements," C.J. Marks (Inst. Geophys., Victoria Univ., POB 600, Wellington, N.Z.), C.D. Rodgers, J. Geophys. Res., 98(D8), 14,939-14,953, Aug. 20, 1993.

Describes a fast method to accurately calculate radiance derivatives required for nonlinear optimal estimation algorithms.


Item #d94jan73

Three items from Geophys. Res. Lett., 20(15), Aug. 6, 1993:

"Ozonesonde Measurements at Hilo, Hawaii, Following the Eruption of Pinatubo," D.J. Hoffmann (CMDL, NOAA, 325 Broadway, Boulder CO 80303), S.J. Oltmans et al., 1555-1558. Ozone was lower than normal below 25 km and higher than normal above 25 km. The persistent nature of the perturbation can not be easily explained.

"Kinetics of the Reaction of CH3O2 with ClO at 293 K," R.D. Kenner (CSIRO Div. Appl. Phys., Lindfield, 2070 Australia), K.R. Ryan, I.C. Plumb, 1571-1574.

"Reexamination of the Relation Between Depth of the Antarctic Ozone Hole, and Equatorial QBO [quasi-biennial oscillation] and SST [sea-surface temperature], 1962-1992," J.K. Angell (ARL, NOAA, Silver Spring MD 20910), 1559-1562.


Item #d94jan74

Two items from Geophys. Res. Lett., 20(14), July 23, 1993:

"A Comparison of Observed (Haloe) and Modeled (CCM2) Methane and Stratospheric Water Vapor," P.W. Mote (Dept. Atmos. Sci., Univ. Washington, AK-40, Seattle WA 98195), J.R. Holton et al., 1419-1422. Model calculations compared well to measurements of: subsidence over a deep layer in the Southern Hemisphere polar vortex; widespread dehydration in the polar vortex; and existence of a region of low water vapor mixing ratios from the Antarctic into the Northern Hemisphere tropics.

"Mechanisms of Formation of Stratospheric Clouds Observed During the Antarctic Late Winter of 1992," G.P. Gobbi (Ist. Fis. Atmos. CNR, via G. Galilei, CP27, 00044 Frascati, Italy), A. Adriani, 1427-1430. Large particles in the air parcels can survive for several days in undersaturated air, and when cooled further can act as preferential growth nuclei.


Item #d94jan75

Comment on errors and ozone measurement, Nature, 364(6434), 198, July 15, 1993.


Item #d94jan76

"Ideas Flow on Antarctic Vortex," W. Randel (NCAR, POB 3000, Boulder CO 80307), Nature, 364(6433), 105-106, July 8, 1993.

A research news note on work presented at an American Geophysical Union meeting (Baltimore, May 1993). Data suggest that, due to rapid transit through the polar vortex, air outside the vortex has experienced the conditions within the vortex and affects ozone depletion in the middle and low latitudes.


Item #d94jan77

"Seasonal Climate Summary: The Global Climate of September-November 1990: ENSO-Like Warming in the Western Pacific and Strong Ozone Depletion over Antarctica," K.C. Mo (Clim. Anal. Ctr., NOAA, Washington DC 20233), J. Clim., 6(7), 1375-1391, July 1993. Includes a description of the meteorological setting for this year's Antarctic ozone depletion.


Item #d94jan78

Special Section: "The Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS): Results from the First Year and a Half of Operations," Geophys. Res. Lett., 20(12), June 18, 1993. Includes 29 papers.


Item #d94jan79

"On the Adsorption of NO and NO2 on Cold H2O/H2SO4 Surfaces," O.W. Saastad (Dept. Chem., Univ. Oslo, POB 1033, Blindern, N-0315 Oslo, Nor.), T. Ellermann, C.J. Nielsen, ibid., 1191-1193.

Laboratory experiments show that formation of nitrosyl sulfuric acid by adsorption of NO and NO2 on cold H2SO4 particles is unlikely to be important in the stratosphere.


Item #d94jan80

"Infrared-Spectrum of OClO in the 2000 cm-1 Region: The 2-u-1 and u-1+u-3 Bands," J. Ortigoso (CSIC, Inst. Estructura Mat., Serrano 119/E-28006 Madrid, Spain), R. Escribano et al., J. Molecular Spectrosc., 158(2), 347-356, Apr. 1993.


Item #d94jan81

"Computational Studies of Atmospheric Chemistry Species. 4. On the Thermodynamics of the ClOO and OClO Radicals," Z. Slanina (M. Planck Inst. Chem., W-6500 Mainz, Ger.), F. Uhlik, Thermochimica Acta, 216, 81-85, Mar. 22, 1993.


Item #d94jan82

"Ozone Vertical Distribution in the Tropics," B.H. Subbaraya (Phys. Res. Lab., Ahmedabad 380009, Gujarat, India), Current Sci., 64(5), 339-344, Mar. 10, 1993.

Measurements revealed some new features of the photochemical and dynamic control of O3 at stratospheric and mesospheric altitudes.


Item #d94jan83

"Evidence for Vertical Ozone Redistribution Since 1967," R. Furrer (Inst. Weltraumwiss., Free Univ. Berlin, Fabeckstr. 69, W-1000 Berlin 33, Ger.), W. Dohler et al., Surveys Geophys., 14(2), 197-222, Mar. 1993. Data evaluation reveals significant long-term trends.


Item #d94jan84

"Total Ozone from NOAA Satellites in the Australian Region," Z.-J. Wu (Bur. Meteor. Res. Ctr., GPO Box 1289K, Melbourne, VIC 3001, Australia), J.L. Marshall, Aust. Meteor. Mag., 40(4), 205-210, Dec. 1992. Compares results from a new algorithm with those from the original one and with surface-based observations.


Item #d94jan85

"Variations in Total Ozone and Nitrogen Dioxide in the Arctic Atmosphere during the Polar Night of 1989/90 and 1990/91," V.M. Dorokhov, V.E. Fioletov, V.I. Sitnikova, Soviet Meteor. Hydrol., No. 6, 42-46 (p. 54 Russian), 1992.

Presents the results of observations at 81·N which, in winter 1990-1991, did not show substantial anomalies in total ozone.

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