February 28, 2007
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Global Climate Change Digest
A Guide to Information on Greenhouse Gases and Ozone Depletion
Published July 1988 through June 1999
FROM VOLUME 7, NUMBER 3, MARCH 1994
- TREND ANALYSIS: PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES
in Global Marine Cloudiness and Anthropogenic Sulfur," F.
Parungo (ARL, ERL, NOAA, 325 Broadway, Boulder CO 80303), J.F.
Boatman et al., J. Clim., 7(3), 434-440, Mar. 1994.
Statistical analysis of marine cloud data shows a positive
trend in total oceanic cloud between 1930 and 1981, with a
greater increase in the Northern Hemisphere (5.8%) than in the
Southern Hemisphere (2.9%). The characteristics of the trends are
in accord with those of anthropogenic SO2 emissions; a hypothesis
of their influence on cloud amounts is proposed.
and Trends of Total Precipitation and Snowfall over the United
States and Canada," P.Y. Groisman, D.R. Easterling (Natl.
Clim. Data Ctr., 37 Battery Pk. Ave., Asheville NC 28801), J.
Clim., 7(1), 184-205, Jan. 1994.
Annual precipitation increased in southern Canada by 13% and
in the U.S. by 4% during the last century, and increased in
northern Canada by 20% during the last four decades. ENSO is
usually associated with increased precipitation in the U.S.
Drought in the Contiguous United States, 1900-1989: Spatial
Patterns and Multiple Comparison of Means," P.T. Soulé
(Dept. Geog. & Planning, Appalachian State Univ., Boone NC
28608), Geophys. Res. Lett., 20(21), 2367-2370,
Nov. 5, 1993.
A transition from wetter to drier climate occurred between the
early and middle parts of this century from the northcentral
Rocky Mountains to the northern Great Plains. Difficulties in
determining trends are discussed.
Cloudiness Since 1875," W.-C. Wang (Atmos. Sci. Res. Ctr.,
State Univ. New York, Albany NY 12205), Q.-Y. Zhang et al., J.
Clim., 6(10), 1921-1927, Oct. 1993. Studied the
relationship to other climate parameters for 1951-1990, and
reconstructed values for 1875-1950. On a century time scale,
there was no clear trend in cloudiness.
of Trend or Change in Annual Flow of Australian Rivers,"
F.H.S. Chiew (Ctr. Environ. Appl. Hydrol., Univ. Melbourne,
Victoria, Australia), T.A. McMahon, Intl. J. Climatol., 13(6),
643-653, Sep.-Oct. 1993.
There is no evidence that the greenhouse effect is currently
affecting streamflows, but analysis of historical records
indicates that significant trends may be detected in the future
if predicted scenarios are realized.
Snow Cover Monitoring: An Update," D.A. Robinson (Dept.
Geog., Rutgers Univ., New Brunswick NJ 08903), K.F. Dewey, R.R.
Heim Jr., Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 74(9),
1689-1696, Sep. 1993.
Updates the status of global snow cover monitoring,
concentrating on the NOAA satellite observational record. Snow
cover may be a useful index for monitoring climate change,
because global models predict it will decrease due to enhanced
warming in regions of ephemeral snow cover.
the Occurrence of Deep Cyclones over Europe and the North
Atlantic in the Period 1930-1991," H. Schinke (Meteor.
Inst., Humboldt Univ., Müggelseedamm 256/58, 12587 Berlin,
Ger.), Beitr. Phys. Atmos., 66(3), 223-237,
The number of deep cyclones increased, especially during
periods of higher "mean central pressure".
Features Associated with the Winter Rainfall Decrease in
Southwestern Australia," R.J. Allan (Div. Atmos. Res.,
CSIRO, Melbourne, Australia), M.R. Haylock, J. Clim., 6(7),
1356-1367, July 1993.
Mean sea level pressures derived in the study do not resemble
those predicted by general circulation models for CO2 doubling.
Variability in the Southern Oscillation: Isotopic Results from a
Tarawa Atoll Coral," J.E. Cole (Lamont-Doherty Earth
Observ., Palisades NY 10964), R.G. Fairbanks, G.T. Shen, Science, 260(5115),
1790-1793, June 18, 1993.
Variation in a 96-year O2 isotope record from coral
corresponds to annual and monthly observed changes in the
strength of the Southern Oscillation.
Variations of Sea Ice and Air Temperature in High
Latitudes," W.L. Chapman (Dept. Atmos. Sci., Univ. Illinois,
Urbana IL 61801), J.E. Walsh, Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 74(1),
33-47, Jan. 1993.
A gridded sea-ice database shows no significant trend of
coverage in the Arctic during winter or in the Antarctic during
any season. Seasonal and geographical changes are consistent with
recent experiments using coupled atmosphere-ocean models.
Analysis of Decade- and Century-Scale Climatic Jumps in
History," Y. Zhongwei (Inst. Atmos. Phys., Chinese Acad.
Sci., Beijing 100080, China), W. Xiaochun, L. Zhaoyuan, Chin.
J. Atmos. Sci., 17(4), 359-367, 1993.
Used flood and drought information from historical documents
to reveal wet-to-dry and dry-to-wet jumps during the last 2000
Latitude Environments and Environmental Change," L. Kullman
(Dept. Phys. Geog., Umeå Univ., S-901 87 Umeå, Swed.), Prog.
Phys. Geog., 16(4), 478-488, Dec. 1992.
Reviews records from the late 1980s and finds no evidence that
climate or ecosystems are currently affected by enhanced
greenhouse warming. Stresses the need for long-term, unbiased
monitoring and analyses.
Trends in Midlatitudes as a Possible Indicator of the Atmospheric
Greenhouse Effect," J. Bremer (Inst. Atmos. Phys.,
Schlossstr. 4-6/0-2565 Kuehlungsborn, Ger.), J. Atmos. Terr.
Phys., 54(11-12), 1505-1511, Nov.-Dec. 1992.
Found the first experimental decrease in peak height of the
ionospheric F2 layer that had been predicted for increasing
greenhouse effect by a model.
from Tellus, 44B(4), Sep. 1992:
"Long-Term Measurements of Light Alkanes and Acetylene in
the Antarctic Troposphere," J. Rudolph (Inst. Atmos. Chem.,
Forschungs. Jülich, POB 1913, D-5170 Jülich, Ger.), A. Khedim
et al., 252-261. Measurements indicate that average mixing ratios
in austral winter increased slightly during the last few years,
possibly due to the increase of biomass burning in the Southern
"Time-Trends in the Pattern of Ocean-Atmosphere Exchange
in an Ice Core from the Weddell Sea Sector of Antarctica,"
D.A. Peel (Brit. Antarctic Surv., High Cross, Madingley Rd.,
Cambridge CB3 0ET, UK), R. Mulvaney, 430-442. Ice core analysis
suggests a weakening of the ice cover during the past century,
although satellite evidence reveals no significant change since
States Drought Trends of the Past Century," S.B. Idso (U.S.
Water Conserv. Lab., 4331 E. Broadway, Phoenix AZ 85040), R.C.
Balling Jr., Agric. & For. Meteor., 60(3-4),
279-284, Aug. 31, 1992.
Drought conditions have been alleviated over the past third of
a century, possibly due to increased anthropogenic SO2 emissions
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