February 28, 2007
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A Guide to Information on Greenhouse Gases and Ozone Depletion
Published July 1988 through June 1999
FROM VOLUME 7, NUMBERS 11-12, NOVEMBER-DECEMBER 1994
PROFESSIONAL PUBLICATIONS... IMPACTS OF ELEVATED CO2
from Plant, Cell & Environ., 17(10), Oct. 1994:
"Modelling Forest Response to Increasing CO2
Concentration Under Nutrient-Limited Conditions," M.U.F.
Kirschbaum (Div. Forestry, CSIRO, POB 4008, Queen Victoria Terr.,
Canberra, ACT 2600, Australia), D.A. King et al., 1081-1099.
Further testing of an analytical model revealed its key
assumptions and allowed for more confident predictions.
Conclusions about the CO2 sensitivity of production were strongly
influenced by assumptions about the relationship between foliar
and heartwood nitrogen concentrations. Trees growing under
N-limited conditions can respond to increasing CO2 with
considerable growth increases.
"Insects and Fungi on a C3 Sedge and a C4 Grass Exposed
to Elevated Atmospheric CO2 Concentrations in Open-Top Chambers
in the Field," G.B. Thompson (Smithsonian Environ. Res.
Ctr., POB 28, Edgewater MD 21037), B.G. Drake, 1161-1167. Studied
plant-fungi and plant-insect interactions in an emergent marsh in
the Chesapeake Bay. The severity of fungal infection increased or
decreased with elevated atmospheric CO2 depending on nitrogen
concentration and water content. The number of plants infected
with insects decreased, as did the amount of tissue eaten by
of Growth at Two Carbon Dioxide Concentrations and Two
Temperatures for Leaf Gas Exchange in Pascopyrum smithii
(C3) and Bouteloua gracilis (C4)," J.A. Morgan (ARS,
USDA, Ft. Collins CO 80526), H.W. Hunt et al., ibid., 17(9),
1023-1033, Sep. 1994.
Both important grass species of the short-grass steppe showed
higher leaf CO2 assimilation rates with increased CO2
concentration. However, the photosynthetic capacity of P.
smithii leaves was reduced when grown at high CO2
concentration, and severely reduced when grown at elevated
"Trends in Stomatal Density and 13C/12C Ratios
of Pinus flexilis Needles During Last Glacial-Interglacial
Cycle," P.K. Van de Water, S.W. Leavitt, J.L. Betancourt
(USGS, 1675 W. Anklam Rd., Tucson AZ 85745), Science, 264(5156),
239-242, Apr. 8, 1994.
Measurements, at sites selected to isolate the effects of
changing atmospheric CO2 levels, reveal shifts in
plant physiology and leaf morphology during the last 30,000
years. The Ù13C variations may help constrain hypotheses about
the redistribution of carbon between the atmosphere and biosphere
during the last glacial-interglacial cycle.
Gas Exchange of an Alpine Grassland Under Elevated CO2,"
M.W. Diemer (Bot. Inst. Univ. Basel, Schönbeinstr. 6,
CH-4056 Basel, Switz.), Oecologia, 98(3-4),
Measured ecosystem net CO2 uptake, evapotranspiration and
nighttime CO2 efflux in open-top chambers. Atmospheric nutrient
input may induce equal or greater effects on gas exchange than
increased CO2 concentration.
Responses of CO2 Exchange and Biomass Allocation and Their
Effects on the Relative Growth Rate of Ponderosa Pine in
Different CO2 and Temperature Regimes," R.M. Callaway (Plant
Biol., Univ. Illinois, Urbana IL 61801), E.H. DeLucia et al., ibid., 98(2),
After two months' exposure of seedlings to high CO2, the
effects of CO2 fertilization and temperature on plant growth were
determined by complex shifts in biomass allocation and gas
exchange that may maintain constant growth rates as temperatures
and CO2 concentrations change. All the responses must be
considered together when predicting the potential of forests to
sequester larger amounts of carbon.
of CO2 Enrichment on Whole-Plant Carbon Budget of Seedlings of Fagus
grandifolia and Acer saccharum in Low
Irradiance," C.D. Reid (ARS, USDA, N. Carolina State Univ.,
1509 Varsity Dr., Raleigh NC 27606), B.R. Strain, ibid., 98(1),
The shade-tolerant, co-dominant beech and sugar maple
seedlings differed in their responses, demonstrating the
importance of direct effects of CO2 enrichment when predicting
potential change in species distribution with global climate
Effects of Elevated CO2 on Fecundity in Wild Radish (Raphanus
raphanistrum)," P.S. Curtis (Dept. Plant Biol., 1735
Neil Ave., Ohio State Univ., Columbus OH 43210), A.A. Snow, A.S.
Miller, ibid., 97(1), 100-105, 1994.
Although results did not show a significant genotype-CO2
interaction, they did provide evidence for heritable responses to
elevated CO2. In a subset of plants, the magnitude of CO2 effects
on fecundity was also influenced by soil fertility.
Growth Enhancements of Co-Occurring Tree Species Decline at
Different Rates," F.A. Bazzaz (Dept. Organismic & Evol.
Biol., Harvard Univ., Cambridge MA 02128), S.L. Miao, P.M. Wayne, ibid., 96(4),
Greenhouse studies with six species show that CO2-induced
enhancements in temperate forest productivity may not be
sustained for long periods of time. Species' differential growth
responses to elevated CO2 may indirectly influence forest
productivity via long-term species compositional changes.
of Elevated CO2 on Growth and Carbon/Nutrient Balance in the
Deciduous Woody Shrub Lindera benzoin (L.) Blume
(Lauraceae)," M.L. Cipollini (Dept. Zool., Univ. Florida,
223 Bartram Hall, Gainesville FL 32611), B.G. Drake, D. Whigham, ibid., 96(3),
Nitrogen limitation may constrain plants to allocate
carbohydrates produced in response to elevated CO2 primarily to
storage and below-ground growth, rather than to increased stem
and leaf growth. Predicts future changes in carbon-nutrient
balance induced by elevated CO2.
from ibid., 95(4), 1993:
"Increased CO2 and Nutrient Status Changes Affect
Phytomass and the Production of Plant Defensive Secondary
Chemicals in Salix myrsinifolia (Salisb.)," R.
Julkunen-Tiitto (Dept. Biol., Univ. Joensuu, SF-80101 Joensuu,
Finland), J. Tahvanainen, J. Silvola, 495-498. Willow defense
against generalist herbivores is moderately decreased by enhanced
"Effects of Nitrogen Supply and Elevated Carbon Dioxide
on Construction Cost in Leaves of Pinus taeda (L.)
Seedlings," K.L. Griffin (Dept. Bot., Duke Univ., Durham NC
27708), R.B. Thomas, B.R. Strain, 575-580. Increasing ambient CO2
partial pressure from 35 to 65 Pa increased loblolly pine
seedling growth only when soil nitrogen was high.
items from Plant, Cell & Environ., 17(8), Aug.
"Regulation of the Expression of Photosynthetic Nuclear
Genes by CO2 Is Mimicked by Regulation by Carbohydrates: A
Mechanism for the Acclimation of Photosynthesis to High
CO2?" J.-J. Van Oosten (Hort. Res. Intl., Worthing Rd., W.
Sussex BN17 6LP, UK), D. Wilkins, R.T. Besford, 913-923.
"Gas Exchange and Growth Responses to Elevated CO2 and
Light Levels in the CAM Species Opuntia ficus-indica,"
M. Cui, P.S. Nobel (Lab. Biomed. & Environ. Sci., Univ.
Calif., Los Angeles CA 90024), 935-944.
"Changes in Net Photosynthesis and Growth of Pinus
eldarica Seedlings in Response to Atmospheric CO2
Enrichment," R.L. Garcia (U.S. Water Conserv. Lab., 4331 E.
Broadway, Phoenix AZ 85040), S.B. Idso et al., 971-978.
Effect of Growth at Elevated CO2 Concentrations on Photosynthesis
in Wheat," I.F. McKee (Dept. Biol., Univ. Essex, Wivenhoe
Pk., Colchester CO4 3SQ, UK), ibid., 17(7),
853-859, July 1994.
from Ecology, 75(4), June 1994:
"Elevated CO2 and Temperature Alter Recruitment and Size
Hierarchies in C3 and C4 Annuals," S.R. Morse, F.A. Bazzaz
(Biol. Lab., 16 Divinity Ave., Harvard Univ., Cambridge MA
"Increasing CO2: Comparative Responses of the C4 Grass Schizachyrium
and Grassland Invader Prosopis," H.W. Polley (ARS,
USDA, Temple TX 76502), H.B. Johnson, H.S. Mayeux, 976-988.
Alters Water Use, Carbon Gain, and Yield for the Dominant Species
in a Natural Grassland," R.B. Jackson (Dept. Biol. Sci.,
Stanford Univ., Stanford CA 94305), O.E. Sala et al., Oecologia, 98(3-4),
from ibid., 98(2), 1994:
"Effects of CO2-Mediated Changes in Paper Birch and White
Pine Chemistry on Gypsy Moth Performance," S.K. Roth (Dept.
Entomol., 1630 Linden Dr., Univ. Wisconsin, Madison WI 53706),
R.L. Lindroth, 133-138.
"The Interaction Between CO2 and Plant Nutrition:
Comments on a Paper by Coleman, McConnaughay and Bazzaz,"
G.I. Ågren (Dept. Ecol. & Environ. Res., Swed. Univ. Agric.
Sci., Box 7072, S-750 07 Uppsala, Swed.), 239-240.
Pine Grown Under Elevated CO2 Affects Early Instar Pine Sawfly
Performance," R.S. Williams (Dept. Biol. Sci., Univ. S.
Carolina, Columbia SC 29208), D.E. Lincoln, R.B. Thomas, ibid., 98(1),
CO2 and Drought Alter Tissue Water Relations of Birch (Betula
populifolia Marsh.) Seedlings," S.R. Morse (Coll. of the
Atlantic, 105 Eden St., Bar Harbor ME 04609), P. Wayne et al., ibid., 95(4),
Guide to Publishers
Index of Abbreviations