February 28, 2007
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Global Climate Change Digest
A Guide to Information on Greenhouse Gases and Ozone Depletion
Published July 1988 through June 1999
FROM VOLUME 7, NUMBERS 11-12, NOVEMBER-DECEMBER 1994
PROFESSIONAL PUBLICATIONS... ENERGY: POLICY AND ECONOMICS
Electricity Journal, 7(9), Nov. 1994, contains a
cluster of articles relating to the implications of impending
strategic and regulatory changes in the electricity industry,
which could lead to the separate handling of generation,
transmission and distribution, with open competition in each
sector. This could have implications for energy efficiency and
energy conservation. The Electricity Journal, published
ten times per year by Robert Owen Marritz (1501 Western Ave., S.
100, Seattle WA 98101; tel: 206-382-0195), costs $125 (colleges
and public libraries), $275 (government agencies), $395 (others).
Examples of articles in this issue are:
"Energy Efficiency Services: What Role in a Competitive
Environment?" J. Newcomb (E-Source Inc., Boulder, Colo.),
"Can Energy Markets Drive DSM?" D.A. Houston (Koch
Industries Fellow, Univ. Kansas), 46-55.
"Reinventing the Energy Conservation Industry," R.
Rouse (Conservation Conversions Inc., Massachusetts), 56-65.
"A Win/Win Approach to Commercial/Industrial DSM: Making
DSM Work for All Utility Customers," H. Lachman (Energy
Efficiency Inst., Colchester, Vt.), P. Cillo et al., 66-73.
GATT Panel Decision on Automobile Taxes," S. Charnovitz, Intl.
Environ. Rptr., pp. 921-922, Nov. 2, 1994.
In September, a dispute panel of the General Agreement on
Tariffs and Trade ruled against the European Community that the
U.S. gas guzzler tax on automobiles was consistent with GATT;
however it also ruled that some provisions of the U.S. CAFE law
violated international trade laws. This is the first complex
environmental dispute to come before GATT, and if adopted will be
a landmark case. Although some have cited this as evidence that
GATT is not a danger to environmental laws, this portrayal as a
major shift toward the environment is exaggerated. The most
worrisome element is the truncation of GATT Article III to only
one portion of a product's life cycle; in this instance GATT
seems to be traveling in a different direction than the rest of
the world. Before Article III is interpreted in this way, the
matter should be carefully studied; the decision should not be
adopted by the GATT Council.
from Energy, 19(11), Nov. 1994:
"Dynamics of Appliance Energy Efficiency in Sweden,"
J.N. Swisher (RisÀ Natl. Lab., POB 49, DK-4000 Roskilde, Den.),
1131-1141. Progressive performance standards could reduce energy
consumption by 35% by 2010. The public procurement process to
move the high-efficiency end of the market would accelerate the
energy-saving potential and would be effective in combination
with performance standards.
"Assessment of Various Scenarios for Utility-Based
Cogeneration in Ontario," M.A. Rosen (Dept. Mech. Eng.,
Ryerson Polytech. Univ., Toronto ON M5B 2K3, Can.), 1143-1149.
Six scenarios show that cogeneration can provide significant
technical, economic and environmental benefits by reducing energy
use and related emissions.
from ibid., 19(10), Oct. 1994:
"Organizational Determinants of Energy-Conservation
Management," J. Selmer (Sch. Bus., Hong Kong Baptist Coll.,
224 Waterloo Rd., Kowloon, Hong Kong), 1023-1030. Studied five
organizations representing different archetypes and showed that
each has distinct prerequisites and motivations to succeed in
energy conservation management. Discusses the implications for
government policy and managerial action.
"Interactive Efforts Between Utilities and Non-Utility
Parties: Constraints and Possibilities," M.R. English
(Energy, Environ. & Resour. Ctr., Univ. Tennessee, 327 S.
Stadium Hall, Knoxville TN 37996), M. Schweitzer, J.A. Altman,
1051-1060. Examines how well these efforts are succeeding,
describes conditions that promote or impede interactions, and
discusses what can be expected from their use.
from World Resour. Rev., 6(3), Sep. 1994:
"The Role of Energy Forestry in Alternative Energy
Planning, Waste Recycling and Agriculture in Sweden," L.
Sennerby-Forsse (Swed. Univ. Agric. Sci., POB 7072, S-750 07
Uppsala, Swed.), L. Christersson, 395-405. Discusses commercial
"energy plantations" that may reduce net CO2 emissions,
and alleviate the waste problem, the low profitability of
agriculture, and the requirement for energy.
"New Electric Technologies to Reduce Global Warming
Impacts," H.A. Courtright (Electric Power Res. Inst., 3412
Hillview Ave., Palo Alto CA 10412), 406-415. The Electric Power
Research Institute is developing technologies that decrease
global warming impact by reducing kilowatt-hour usage and power
plant emissions, and by replacing traditional fossil-fuel driven
"Renewable Energy: Economic and Environmental Issues,"
D. Pimentel (College Agric. & Life Sci., Cornell Univ.,
Ithaca NY 14853), G. Rodrigues et al., BioScience, 44(8),
536-547, Sep. 1994.
Analyzes the potential of various renewable or solar energy
technologies in terms of their land requirements, environmental
benefits and risks, economic costs, and advantages. Solar
alternatives to fossil fuels have the potential to meet a large
portion of future energy needs, provided that the U.S. is
committed to their development and implementation and that energy
conservation is practiced. The economy and national security will
suffer if such a commitment is not made in the next decade or
two. To ensure a reasonable standard of living in the future,
there must be a fair balance between human population density and
energy, land, water, and biological resources.
for Energy and Climate-Change Policies of Using Purchasing-Power
Parity-Based GDP," T.A. Siddiqi (Prog. Environ., East-West
Ctr., Honolulu HI 96848), Energy, 19(9), 975-981,
The economic growth of industrialized countries in the 1970s
and 1980s, with constant or reduced energy use, led to the view
that there was no linear correlation between energy use and GNP.
However, there is better correlation when GNP or GDP are
calculated using purchasing-power-parity rather than
market-exchange rates. This result may have major implications
for future energy requirements of developing countries, and for
policies that address climate change.
Use and CO2 Emissions Reduction: Integrating Pricing and
Regulatory Policies," R.B. Howarth (Environ. Stud. Prog.,
Univ. Calif., Santa Cruz CA 95064), M.A. Winslow, ibid., 19(8),
855-867, Aug. 1994.
Evaluates the impacts of carbon taxes using price-equilibrium
models. If market failures impede the adoption of cost-effective
carbon-abatement technologies, achieving emissions reductions at
minimal social cost would require the joint implementation of
pricing and regulatory instruments.
Energy Programmes in India--Some Recent Developments," C.S.
Sinha (Ctr. Sci. Intl. Affairs, J.F.K. School of Govt., Harvard
Univ., Cambridge MA 02138), Natural Resour. Forum, 18(3),
213-224, Aug. 1994.
The outlook for the role of renewable energy technologies in
the energy supply mix for India is positive. Analyzes recent
changes in implementing institutions, innovation in financing,
and a shift from financial to fiscal incentives.
from The Energy J., 15(3), July 1994:
"Emission Costs, Consumer Bypass and Efficient Pricing of
Electricity," C.-K. Woo (Energy & Environ. Econ., 353
Sacramento St., S. 1540, San Francisco CA 94111), B. Hobbs et
al., 43-54. Derives the optimal tax on emissions and efficient
prices for retail service for two customer classes to show that
pricing proposals made in a recent rate case in California are
inefficient and encourage over-consumption by residential
"Incentive Effects of Environmental Adders in Electric
Power Auctions," J.B. Bushnell (Energy Inst., Univ.
California, 2539 Channing Way, Berkeley CA 94720), S.S. Oren,
55-74. Examines the options for incorporating adders into
auctions for non-utility generation. If adders are used,
regulators must use them explicitly in both operation and
selection of generation resources.
"Integrated Resource Planning with Environmental Costs in
Developing Countries," C.S. Fernando (Freeman Sch. Bus.,
Tulane Univ., New Orleans LA 70118), P.R. Kleindorfer, M.
Munasinghe, 93-122. Reduction of the environmental degradation
and capital costs of expanding electric power requires an
integrated perspective in the planning phase, pricing policies
that reflect the cost of providing power, and organizational
structures that provide incentives for efficient operation.
"Who Pays Broad-Based Energy Taxes? Computing Lifetime
and Regional Incidence," N. Bull (Board of Gov., Fed.
Reserve System, Washington DC 20551), K.A. Hassett, G.E. Metcalf,
145-164. Measures the incidence of energy taxes using a lifetime
framework to study both a BTU tax and a carbon tax, accounting
for two key facts: (1) the importance of measuring the tax burden
over a lifetime, not just in a given year; and (2) in addition to
directly increasing the price of energy goods, energy taxes also
indirectly increase the price of all other goods.
Natural Gas Really the Answer? Targeting Natural Gas in US
Climate Change Mitigation Policy," J. Kessler (Energy Policy
Branch, U.S. EPA, MC-2126, 401 M St. SW, Washington DC 20460), B.
Schillo et al., Energy Policy, 22(7), 623-628, July
Lower natural gas prices appear to have little impact on
greenhouse gas emission trends. However, they and overall lower
fossil-fuel costs defer energy conservation efforts, stimulate
more energy use, and displace cleaner, renewable sources of
Household Energy Sector: Issues and Supply/Demand
Frontiers," G.A. Oladosu (CERD, Obafemi Awolowo Univ.,
Ile-Ife, Nigeria), A.O. Adegbulugbe, ibid., 22(6),
538-549, June 1994.
Deforestation, Nigeria's major environmental threat, is
related to fuelwood use in the residential energy sector. This
sector is the largest contributor of CO2 emissions there, with a
total of 67 million tons in 1989.
of Energy-Supply Structure on Emission-Reduction Costs," O.
Rentz,. . .M. Wietschel (IIP, Univ. Karlsruhe, Hertzstr. 16,
D-76187 Karlsruhe, Ger.) et al., Energy, 19(6),
641-651, June 1994.
Analyzed eight countries for impacts from different energy
scenarios. Established the emission reduction potentials of
restructuring national energy systems and energy conservation
measures, and quantified impacts on emission reduction costs.
items from Energy Policy, 22(5), May 1994:
"Restraining Energy Demand: The Stick, the Carrot, or the
Market?" F.P. Sioshansi (Electric Power Res. Inst., 3412
Hillview Ave., Palo Alto CA 10412), 378-392. Reviews the success
and problems associated with demand-side management incentive
mechanisms in the U.S., and provides policy options for other
countries interested in learning the best way to promote
efficient energy use.
"Deciding on Biomass in Hässelby," B. Olerup (Lund
Inst. Technol., Lund Univ., Gerdagatan 13, S-223 62 Lund, Swed.),
415-426. Describes the decision making process at a Swedish
municipal utility for replacing coal with a mixture of biomass
pellets and low sulfur fuel oil.
Energy Policies for the Brazilian Amazon," M. Redclift
(Environ. Sect., Wye Coll., Univ. London, Wye, Kent TN25 5AH,
UK), ibid., 427-431.
Development of the Amazon has been a concern because of
potential carbon emissions and loss of biodiversity; less
attention has been paid to its role as an energy source for
Brazil. Opposition to large hydropower installations has
attracted international concern, but alternative energy sources
including biomass should also be considered. The Amazon could
provide lessons of global significance regarding sustainable
from Energy Sources, 16(2), Apr.-June, 1994:
"Efficient Electricity in Stockholm," B. Olerup
(Dept. Environ. Energy Sys. Studies, Lund Inst. Technol., Lund
Univ., Gerdagaten 13, S-223 62, Lund, Swed.), 209-227. An energy
efficiency program aimed at the consumer by a marketing
department of Stockholm Energi did not succeed as well as hoped
for several reasons. Stockholm Energi has now reoriented its
efforts, and a desire to be businesslike has taken the place of
"Energy Efficiency or the Efficient Use of Energy
Resources?" R.J. Sutherland (Argonne Natl. Lab., 955 N.
L'Enfant Plaza SW, S. 6000, Washington DC 20024), 257-268.
Distinguishes between these two concepts, which are different
policy goals. Reconsideration of the goal of energy eficiency
reveals that it may result in the misuse of other resources.
Efficient use of energy resources would promote the efficient use
of all resources.
from ibid., 16(1), Jan.-Mar. 1994:
"Energy Taxes--Some Critical Remarks," F. Wirl
(Inst. Energy Econ., Tech. Univ. Vienna, A-1040 Vienna, Austria),
1-15. Draws attention to certain fallacies to which proponents of
energy and environmental taxes seem to be prone. Suggests that
making the polluter liable for all damages is in general
"Effects of a Broad-Based Energy Tax on the United States
Economy," N.D. Uri (Commodity Econ. Div., Econ. Res. Serv.,
USDA, Washington, D.C.), R. Boyd, 133-160. Looks at the economy
in general, and the agricultural sectors in particular, assuming
a per-million-Btu tax of 25.7Ù on natural gas, coal and nuclear
power, and 59.9Ù on petroleum products. Analyzes the effects, on
the producing sectors and on the level of tax revenue generated,
of imposing the tax at the point of production or at the point of
from The Energy J., 15(2), Apr. 1994:
"Energy-Efficiency Investments and Public Policy,"
A.B. Jaffe (Dept. Econ., Harvard Univ., Cambridge MA 02138), R.N.
Stavins, 43-66. Examines the factors determining the rate of
diffusion of technologies, and uses simulations to explore how
alternative policy instruments could hasten the diffusion.
"Estimating Consumer Energy Demand Using International
Data: Theoretical and Policy Implications," D.S. Rothman
(World Resour. Inst., 1709 New York Ave. NW, Washington DC
20006), J.H. Hong, T.D. Mount, 67-88. A model simulation, using a
consistent set of data on prices and expenditures for 53
countries, shows that the demand for electricity is significantly
more price- and income-elastic than the demand for primary
"Residential Energy Demand and the Taxation of
Housing," W.M. Gentry (Dept. Econ., POB 90097, Duke Univ.,
Durham NC 27708), 89-106. The favorable tax treatment of housing
capital in the U.S., that currently lowers its cost by 23%,
affects the demand for residential energy. Eliminating this tax
subsidy would lower residential energy demand by 6.8%. The same
reduction could be obtained through a 20% tax on residential
"Tax Reform and Energy in the Philippines Economy: A
General Equilibrium Computation," R.G. Boyd, K. Doroodian,
P. Udomvaech (Dept. Econ., Ohio Univ., Haning Hall, Athens OH
45701), 135-156. Examines how energy tax cuts, offset with income
tax increases, affect production, consumption, and total welfare.
Energy tax cuts expand some sectors, but decrease output in other
sectors. This policy would enhance growth and aggregate income,
but from an equity standpoint is highly regressive.
from Energy Policy, 22(4), Apr. 1994:
"Reducing Australian Energy Sector Greenhouse Gas
Emissions," B.P. Jones (Australian Bur. Agric. & Resour.
Econ.--ABARE, GPO Box 1563, Canberra, ACT 2601, Australia), Z.-Y.
Peng, B. Naughten, Energy Policy, 22(4), 270-286,
A detailed model analysis of the policy implications of
reducing greenhouse gas emissions shows that the target adopted
by the Australian government can be met, but only with
substantial change in the energy sector, at a substantial cost.
These changes, especially in electricity generation and the use
of renewable resources, have important macroeconomic
"Energy Efficiency Trends in Australia," B. Wilson
(Australian Bur. Agric. & Resour. Econ., GPO Box 1563,
Canberra ACT 2601, Australia), L.H. Trieu, B. Bowen, 287-295.
Analysis of energy efficiency trends for 1973-1991 indicates that
energy efficiency gains may have previously been underestimated.
Relation Between Marginal Product and Price in US Energy Markets:
Implications for Climate Change Policy," R.K. Kaufmann (Ctr.
Energy & Environ. Studies, Boston Univ., 675 Commonwealth
Ave., Boston MA 02215), Energy Econ., 16(2),
145-158, Apr. 1994.
Tests the axioms that describe the relationship between the
marginal product and price of factor inputs. Rational agents
manipulate their use of coal, oil, natural gas and electricity so
that the marginal product adjusts to changes in relative prices.
Discusses the implications for abating CO2 emissions by interfuel
Energy Efficiency and Global Warming," A.J. Streb (Energy
Efficiency & Renewable Energy, U.S. DOE, Washington, D.C.), World
Resour. Rev., 6(2), 234-247, June 1994.
Looks at industrial emissions under alternative energy
scenarios, discusses technologies to improve energy efficiency
and reduce CO2 emissions, and outlines initiatives that would
stimulate adoption of energy efficient and pollution preventing
Rational Use of Energy and Increased Role of Renewable Energy in
the Arab Countries," F. Elkarmi (Higher Council Sci. &
Technol., Amman, Jordan), OPEC Bull., 25(3), 7-10,
Discusses the linkages of energy with development, the
environment and technology endogenization. Stresses the need for
cooperation between the developed and developing nations, and
recommends actions for the Arab countries.
from Energy, 19(11), Nov. 1994:
"A Research Agenda for Demand-Side Management Impact
Measurement," E.L. Vine (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., Bldg.
90-4000, Berkeley CA 94720), H. Misuriello, M.E. Hopkins,
"Exergetic Assessment of the Coolants HCFC123, HFC134a,
CFC11, and CFC12," S.A.M. Said (Dept. Mech. Eng., King Fahd
Univ., Dhahran 31261, Saudi Arabia), B. Ismail, 1181-1186.
on U.S. energy policy folly, Nature, 371(6996),
372, Sep. 29, 1994.
Resources as Energy in Nepal," S. Pokharel (Sys. Design
Eng., Univ. Waterloo, Waterloo ON N2L 3G1, Can.), M.
Chandrashekar, Natural Resour. Forum, 18(3),
225-230, Aug. 1994.
for Environmental Protection Through Privatization of the
Electric Power Sector in Developing Countries," T.N. Russo,
M.J. Narins (Energy & Environ. Strategies Inc., 2128 Kings
Garden Way, Falls Church VA 22043), Environ. Impact Assess.
Rev., 14(4), 233-243, July 1994.
Value Planning: Estimating the Net Benefits of Electric Utility
Resource Plans," B.F. Hobbs (Dept. Sys., Control &
Industrial Eng., 610 Crawford Hall, Case Western Reserve Univ.,
Cleveland OH 44106), A.F. Wilson, Energy Sources, 16(3),
451-477, July-Sep. 1994.
Environmental Markets: Improving the Competitiveness of Natural
Gas," J.M. Chermak (Defense Resour. Mgmt. Inst., Code 64CH,
Naval Postgrad. Sch., Monterey CA 93943), The Energy J., 15(3),
75-92, July 1994.
Monitoring Technologies for the Evaluation of Demand-Side
Management Programs," A.T. de Almeida, E.L. Vine (Calif.
Inst. Energy Efficiency, Berkeley CA 94720), Energy, 19(6),
661-678, June 1994.
World Coal Trade: A Commentary," G. Smith (Dept. Econ.,
Univ. New England, Australia), Energy Policy, 22(6),
443-446, June 1994.
Trading with Shares and Coupons: A Laboratory Experiment,"
R.A. Muller, S. Mestelman (Dept. Econ., McMaster Univ., Hamilton
ON L8S 4M4, Can.), The Energy J., 15(2), 185-212,
from Energy Econ., 16(2), Apr. 1994:
"Quasi-Experimental Taxation Elasticities of US Gasoline
Demand," R.K. Goel (Dept. Econ., Illinois State Univ.,
Normal IL 61790), 133-137.
"An Empirical Analysis of Gasoline Demand [Elasticity] in
Denmark Using Cointegration Techniques," J. Bentzen (Dept.
Appl. Econ., Aarhus Sch. Business, Fuglesangs Allé 20, DK-8210
Aarhus V, Denmark), 139-143.
and Environment Scenarios for Senegal," M. Lazarus
(Stockholm Environ. Inst., c/o Tellus Inst., 11 Arlington St.,
Boston MA 02116), S. Diallo, Y. Sokona, Natural Resour. Forum, 18(1),
31-47, Feb. 1994.
Guide to Publishers
Index of Abbreviations