February 28, 2007
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Global Climate Change Digest
A Guide to Information on Greenhouse Gases and Ozone Depletion
Published July 1988 through June 1999
FROM VOLUME 7, NUMBER 9, SEPTEMBER 1994
REPORTS... ENERGY: POLICY
Energy in U.S. Transportation, U.S. Office Technol. Policy,
276 pp., Sep. 1994. 30-page summary no charge (202-224-8996);
full report $17 (stock no. 052-003-01376-2) from Superintendent
of Documents, POB 371954, Pittsburgh PA 15250 (tel: 202-783-3238;
Personal travel in light vehicles, which currently consumes
over 50% of transportation energy, should be the focus of
transportation energy policy. Recommends measures that would move
the artificially low pricing of vehicle travel closer to true
costs, such as congestion road pricing and phasing out free
Next Efficiency Revolution: Creating a Sustainable Materials
Economy (Worldwatch Paper 121), J.E. Young, A. Sachs, 58 pp.,
Sep. 1994, $5 (Worldwatch).
More waste is produced and environmental damage done in
pre-consumer industries of primary materials extraction and
processing than by all the world's municipal waste combined. Five
materials--paper, steel, aluminum, plastics and container
glass--account for 31% of U.S. manufacturing energy use. A
sustainable materials economy will require redesigning products,
a renaissance in secondary materials industries, and a decline in
reliance on virgin materials.
Energy Systems: Technologies to Reduce CO2 Emission, Aug.
1994, $17. Dept. Sci., Technol. & Soc., Univ. Utrecht, 3584
CH Utrecht, Neth.
Developed countries could reduce emissions by 80% by the year
2050 by implementing existing techniques and developing
opportunities that have so far received little attention.
Possible approaches discussed include energy efficiency, improved
conversion technologies, improvement of "material
efficiency," renewable sources, and CO2 storage. (See Intl.
Environ. Rptr., p. 723, Sep. 7.)
the Future: Blueprint for a Sustainable Electricity Industry
(Worldwatch Paper 119), C. Flavin, N. Lenssen, 74 pp., June 1994,
New technologies and a more competitive market will severely
shake the electric power industry in the next few years. A
two-tiered approach for reform is suggested. For generation and
transmission at the wholesale level, an open, competitive market
that figures in environmental costs would work best. At the
distribution level, a competitive market in electricity services
(including electricity and efficient power-using devices) would
be more effective.
Price Matter? The Importance of Cheap Electricity for the Economy,
M.P. Mills (Mills, McCarthy Inc.), 35 pp., Sep. 1994 (Western
Concludes that price does matter; people and businesses prefer
cheap electricity. Competitive forces and progress in
technologies drive prices down, and cheap electricity is
anti-inflationary and consistent with environmental and social
goals. The pursuit of demand side management and alternative
energy programs should continue, but should not increase
the Climate Change Challenge. Reducing Greenhouse Gases by More
Efficient Use of Fossil Fuels, U.S. Dept. Energy, 32 pp.,
Apr. 1994. Contact R.L. Kane, Off. Fossil Energy (FE-4), U.S.
DOE, 1000 Independence Ave. SW, Washington DC 20585.
Outlines the climate-related activities of the Office of
Fossil Energy, including proposed clean coal technology programs
in China and Eastern Europe. Gives details, and contact persons,
for programs on expanded methane recovery from coal mines,
commercialization of fuel cells, high efficiency gas-fired and
coal-fired power systems, and CO2 recovery, reuse and disposal.
Energy: Lessons from the Pacific Island Experience (Tech.
Paper 244), A. Liebenthal, S. Mathur, H. Wade, 72 pp., May 1994,
$7.95 (World Bank).
In remote Pacific island villages, solar photovoltaic systems
are supplying reliable power at costs lower than those of more
commonly used diesel systems, and they appear promising for
small-scale applications in developing countries. Their success
depends on the technology, training of maintenance personnel,
good fee collection systems, and careful financial management.
Fuels in a Changing Climate, Greenpeace, Apr. 1994.
Greenpeace, 1436 U St. NW, Washington DC 20009 (202-462-1177).
By the year 2030, more than half the world's energy
consumption could be met by renewable sources of energy if
governments committed themselves to those sources. This would
result in a CO2 emissions reduction of 52%.
Challenge of Climate Change--Policy Options for Canada (No.
112-93), 11 pp., Mar. 1994. Contact Conference Board of Canada,
255 Smyth Rd., Ottawa ON K1H 8M7, Can.
Concludes that a carbon tax applied to the sale of fossil
fuels is a cost-effective way to reduce CO2 emissions,
particularly when supplemented by a reduction in other taxes or
an increase in government spending on environmental initiatives.
Also recommends a tradeable emissions permit system based on
federally set targets.
Energy 1994: The 8th Annual Assessment of United States Energy
Policy, June 1994. U.S. Energy Assoc. (USEA), 1620 Eye St.
NW, Washington DC 20006 (202-331-0415).
Recommends strategically assessing the U.S. Department of
Energy's research and development budget, simplifying
environmental regulations, and relying on the market to select
energy technologies. Summarizes the status of all major types of
domestic power production.
Failure, Environ. Defense Fund (EDF) and Natural Resour.
Defense Council, 1994, no charge. Order from EDF, 275 Park Ave.
S, New York NY 10010 (212-505-2100); 1616 P St. NW, Washington DC
Concludes that the World Bank has largely failed to comply
with its own policies on environmental efficiency. Only two of 46
recent loans were based on, or supported development of,
integrated energy strategies. However, the report gives the World
Bank high grades for efforts to improve energy efficiency through
pricing reform. Recommends a climate change policy that evaluates
greenhouse gas impacts of each energy lending project.
Report of the Spring Meeting of the CSG/ERC [Council of State
Governments, Eastern Regional Conference] Energy and
Environment Committee, 74 pp., Jan. 1994. Order from CSG/ERC,
5 World Trade Ctr., S. 9241, New York NY 10048 (tel:
212-912-0128; fax: 212-912-0549).
Sponsored by CSG/ERC and the Qu?bec National Assembly (May
1993, Qu?bec City) to explore Qu?bec's energy, environmental
and native affairs policies and how these programs relate to the
issue of hydropower. The report contains transcribed
presentations of several officials.
the Bridge to Clean Energy, Citizen's Utility Board, June
1994. Contact CUB, POB 6345, Portland OR 97205 (tel:
503-227-1984; fax: 503-274-2956).
Electric utilities in the Pacific Northwest are rapidly
building natural-gas power plants, increasing fossil fuel use and
diverting their investments away from conservation and
renewables. The 22 gas-fired plants now under construction could
increase the region's CO2 emissions by 8.5%
in Energy Efficiency: A Comparison of the U.S. Versus the Other
Major Industrialized Countries, EOP Group Inc., 54 pp., Oct.
1993. Prepared for the Global Climate Coalition (GCC), 1331
Pennsylvania Ave. NW, S. 1500-N. Tower, Washington DC 20004
Compares past trends and current levels of energy efficiency
in the G-7 countries, challenging the conventional wisdom that
the U.S. is relatively energy inefficient. For example, over the
past two decades the U.S. has achieved a 30% improvement in the
use of energy per unit GDP, significantly greater than most other
industrialized countries, and comparable to that of Japan.
Efficiency and Conservation in the Developing World, 104 pp.,
Mar. 1993, $7.95 (World Bank).
Reviews the World Bank's participation in energy projects and
discusses its strategies to promote energy efficiency. Four
factors that account for differences in efficiency between
industrial and developing countries are energy pricing policies,
control of energy supply enterprises, protection of energy-using
industries from competition, and barriers to the productive
functioning of markets.
the Hidden Costs of Fossil Fuels, 4 pp., 1993, single copies
free with SASE (UCS).
Air pollution is but one of many problems that can be
attributed to fossil fuels, which account for 85% of current U.S.
fuel use. The hidden costs, which the producers do not pay,
include human health problems from air pollution and
environmental degradation from global warming. Suggests changes
in the way energy is priced to remedy the situation.
Guide to Publishers
Index of Abbreviations