February 28, 2007
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Global Climate Change Digest
A Guide to Information on Greenhouse Gases and Ozone Depletion
Published July 1988 through June 1999
FROM VOLUME 8, NUMBER 8, AUGUST 1995
"Higher UV Radiation Inferred from Low Ozone Levels at Northern
Mid-Latitudes in 1992 and 1993," U. Feister (Meteor. Observ.,
Telegrafenberg, 14473 Potsdam, Ger.), R. Grewe, Global & Planetary
Change, 11(1-2), 25-34, June 1995.
Estimated the effect of ozone and cloudiness on biologically effective UV
irradiation by a combination of irradiance measurements and model calculations.
Lower cloud amount in summer months enhanced the effect of low ozone values and
may have led to adverse biological impacts. Higher cloud amount in winter months
reduced the effect.
Comment on UV-B effect, Nature, 374(6523), 601, Apr. 13,
"Solar Ultraviolet Radiation and the Risk of Infectious Disease:
Summary of a Workshop," R.S. Chapman, . .T.E. Werkema (UMAP Inc., S. 400,
W. Tower, 1333 M St. NW, Washington DC 20005), Photochem. & Photobiol.,
61(3), 223-247, Mar. 1995.
Review of a workshop (Miami Beach, Mar. 1994) sponsored by EPA and the
Ultraviolet Monitoring and Assessment Program Panel. Workshop objectives were to
assess evidence for effects of UV radiation changes on infectious diseases and
data on dose-response relationships, and to identify scientific uncertainties.
Also includes discussion summaries from the workshop that provide information
and alternative opinions.
"The Effects of Enhanced UV-B Radiation on a Subarctic Heath
Ecosystem," U. Johanson (Dept. Plant Pathol., Lund Univ., Box 117, S-221 ØØ
Lund, Swed,), C. Gehrke et al., Ambio, 24(2), 106-111, Mar.
In a field irradiation experiment, decomposition was impaired and annual
growth of dwarf shrubs was lower under enhanced UV-B radiation. Leaves were
thicker or thinner depending on species. In Hylocomium splendens moss,
phenological development was accelerated under enhanced UV-B radiation and
number of primary branches, length and dry weight also increased.
"Climate Changes, Ozone Depletion, and Ecological Consequences,"
Yu.A. Izrael (Inst. Global Climate & Ecol., Main Geophys. Observ., Russia),
I.L. Karol et al., Russian Meteor. & Hydrol., No. 2, 1-9, 1994.
Presents recent data on ozone depletion in polar and mid-latitudes, and
considers probable resulting changes in terrestrial and marine ecosystems.
Organisms in the sea surface layer are the most vulnerable to increased UV
"UVB-Induced Immune Suppression and Infection with Schistosoma
mansoni," F.P. Noonan (Dept. Dermatol., School of Medicine, George
Washington Univ., Washington DC 20037), F.A. Lewis, Photochem. &
Photobiol., 61(1), 99-105, Jan. 1995.
UV-induced immunosuppression of mice resulted in minimal changes in
occurrence of helminth parasite infection and resistance to rechallenge by
vaccination, in contrast to the effects of UV-B shown in other infectious
"Incorporation of Multiple Cloud Layers for Ultraviolet Radiation
Modeling Studies," D.H. Charache (Dept. Atmos., Oceanic & Space Sci.,
Univ. Michigan, Ann Arbor MI 48109), V.J. Abreu et al., J. Geophys. Res.,
99(D11), 23,031-23,039, Nov. 20, 1994.
Used cloud data sets to develop an algorithm for incorporating multiple
cloud layers into a multiple-scattering radiative transfer model. Calculations
show that decreasing the total column density of ozone by 1% leads to an
increase in erythemal exposure by about 1.1-1.3%, in good agreement with
previous studies. Inclusion of multiple cloud layers may be important in
accurately determining the biologically effective UV budget at the surface of
"Measurements of Chemically and Biologically Effective Radiation
Reaching the Ground," U. Feister (Meteor. Observ., Telegrafenberg, 14473
Potsdam, Ger.), J. Atmos. Chem., 19(3), 289-315, Oct. 1994.
Solar UV radiation measurements on cloudless days show that relations
between different effects of radiation to the biosphere depend on solar zenith
angle, and to some extent on atmospheric ozone. The relation must be considered
when adverse effects of changing UV radiation are evaluated. Radiation
Amplification Factors derived from measurements correspond to those determined
from model calculations.
"Photosynthetic Pigments in the Surface Layer of the Atlantic Ocean
Between 50° N and 60° S Related to the Bioproduction of Organohalogens and to
the Increase in UV Radiation," D. Drexler, K. Ballschmiter (Dept. Anal. &
Environ. Chem., Univ. Ulm, Albert Einstein Allee 11, D-89069 Ulm, Ger.), Chemosphere,
29(7), 1527-1542, Oct. 1994.
Developed a method of sampling and analyzing particulate chlorophyll
a and other photosynthetic pigments that provides a sensitive tool to
register changes in the total pattern of phytoplankton pigments due to increased
UV radiation caused by ozone depletion. The pattern of photosynthetic pigments
depended on the sampling site, depth, and time of day.
"The Impact of UV-B Radiation and Ozone on Terrestrial Vegetation,"
V.C. Runeckles (Dept. Plant Sci., Univ. British Columbia, Vancouver BC V6T 1Z4,
Can.), S.V. Krupa, Environ. Pollut., 83, 191-213, 1994.
A review. Our knowledge of dose-response relationships under true field
conditions is limited and fragmentary. Virtually no information is available
about the effects of simultaneous or sequential exposures. Experimentation that
is relevant to field situations must use technologies and protocols that focus
on quantification of the interactions of UV-B and ozone, and their interactions
with other environmental factors.
"Climate Change: Potential Effects of Increased Atmospheric Carbon
Dioxide (CO2), Ozone (O3), and Ultraviolet-B (UV-B) Radiation on Plant Diseases,"
W.J. Manning (Dept. Plant Pathol., Univ. Massachusetts, Amherst MA 01003), A. V.
Tiedemann, Environ. Pollut., 88(2), 219-245, 1995.
Very little is known about the actual impacts of climate change factors on
disease epidemiology in plants. Increased CO2 could increase plant canopy size
and density, with resulting greater biomass and higher microclimate relative
humidity. This could promote diseases such as rusts, mildews, leaf spots and
blights. Plants weakened through ozone could be more susceptible to necrotrophic
pathogens; ozone is unlikely to directly affect fungal pathogens. Increased UV-B
could lead to increased disease resistance through increased production of
flavinoids, but reduced net photosynthesis, and premature ripening and
senescence, could result in variable reactions to disease.
"Evaluation of the Role of Damage to Photosystem II in the
Inhibition of CO2 Assimilation in Pea Leaves on Exposure to UV-B Radiation,"
S. Nogués, N.R. Baker (Dept. Biol., Univ. Essex, Colchester CO4 3SQ, UK),
Plant, Cell & Environ., 18(7), 781-787, July 1995.
"Early-Season Effects of Supplemented Solar UV-B Radiation on
Seedling Emergence, Canopy Structure, Simulated Stand Photosynthesis and
Competition for Light," P.W. Barnes (Dept. Biol., Southwest Texas State
Univ., San Marcos TX 78666), S.D. Flint, M.M. Caldwell, Global Change Biol.,
1(1), 43-53, Feb. 1995.
"Effects of Ultraviolet-B Radiation (UV-B) on Growth and Physiology
of the Dune Grassland Species Calamagrostis epigeios," M. Tosserams
(Faculty Biol., Vrije Univ., De Boelelaan 1087, 1081 HV Amsterdam, Neth.), J.
Rozema, Environ. Pollut., 89(2), 209-214, 1995.
"Ozone Exposure Decreases UVB Sensitivity in a UVB-Sensitive
Flavonoid Mutant of Arabidopsis," M.V. Rao (Dept. Hort. Sci., Univ.
Guelph, Guelph ON N1G 2W1, Can.), D.P. Ormrod, Photochem. & Photobiol.,
61(1), 71-78, Jan. 1995.
"Penetration of Solar UV Irradiation in Coastal Lagoons of the
Southern Baltic Sea and Its Effect on Phytoplankton Communities," H.
Piazena, D.-P. Häder (Inst. Bot. & Pharmazeutische Biol., Friedrich
Alexander Univ., Staudstr. 5, D-91058 Erlangen, Ger.), ibid., 60(5),
463-469, Nov. 1994.
"A Dosimetric Technique for the Measurement of Ultraviolet Radiation
Exposure to Plants," A.V. Parisi, C.F. Wong (Ctr. Medical & Health
Phys., Queensland Univ. Technol., GPO Box 2434, Brisbane 4001, Australia), ibid.,
Guide to Publishers
Index of Abbreviations