February 28, 2007
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A Guide to Information on Greenhouse Gases and Ozone Depletion
Published July 1988 through June 1999
FROM VOLUME 8, NUMBER 12, DECEMBER 1995
Forty-Five Countries to Join Various Forms of Carbon Reduction Agreements,"
H. Welsch (Inst. Energy Econ., Univ. Cologne, A. Magnus Pl., 50923 Köln,
Ger.), Resour. & Energy Econ., 17(3), 213-237, Nov. 1995.
Combines current economic data and population projections to carbon
production functions and damage functions for the 45 largest carbon emitting
countries. Uses this information to calculate the costs and benefits for each
country under several different approaches to reducing global emissions from the
1987 level by 50% (Toronto target). A major result is that a system of
arbitrarily distributed flexible (tradeable) emission quotas may lead to a close
approximation of an agreement with optimal quotas.
Letter to the editor
in Nature, 377(6550), 570, Oct. 19, 1995, from K.V. Rao (Ctr.
for Sci. & Environ., 41 Tughlakabad Institutional Area, New Delhi 110 062,
Climate modelers must shift their efforts from global generalities to
regional specifics. In this respect South Asia, with its unique characteristics
(agro-climatic zones, food security problems, rising population, and economic
growth), presents an immense challenge and opportunity for furthering
international scientific cooperation. The alternative is to develop policy
against the backdrop of an asymmetry of scientific information and political
"A Fiscal Reform
for Increasing Employment and Mitigating CO2 Emissions in Europe,"
F. Bossier (Federal Planning Off., Ministry Econ. Affairs, Ave. des Arts 47/49,
B-1049 Brussels, Belg.), T. Bréchet, Energy Policy, 23(9),
789-798, Sep. 1995.
Evaluates a possible "green" fiscal reform consisting of using a
CO2/energy tax to finance reductions in the social security
contributions of employers equivalent to about 1% of the European GDP. Economic
simulations for six European countries indicate that modest reductions in
emissions and increases in employment would result.
as a Policy Instrument to Reduce CO2 Emissions: A Net Benefit
Analysis," R. Boyd, K. Krutilla (Sch. Public & Environ. Affairs [SPEA],
Indiana Univ., Bloomington IN 47405), W.K. Viscusi, J. Environ. Econ. &
Mgmt., 29(1), 1-24, July 1995.
Combines cost estimates of CO2 reductions with monetary
estimates of environmental damages of increased CO2. Concludes that
optimal CO2 reductions range from 5% to 38%, depending on different
assumptions about energy substitution elasticities and environmental damages.
Energy is underpriced given its environmental costs, so reducing energy
consumption and emissions soon will yield net economic benefits. Deferring
policy action will impose net economic costs.
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