February 28, 2007
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Global Climate Change Digest
A Guide to Information on Greenhouse Gases and Ozone Depletion
Published July 1988 through June 1999
FROM VOLUME 8, NUMBER 12, DECEMBER 1995
"A Century of
Energy ConversionAn Environmental Overview," F.B. Chaaban (American
Univ. Beirut, Faculty Eng. & Architecture, 850 Third Ave., New York NY
10022), R. Assi, J. Abdo, Intl. J. Environ. Studies,
47(2), 133-142, 1995.
Discusses the correlation between energy production and its environmental
impacts in the 20th century, and ways the electricity generation and
transportation industries can reduce the impacts. Renewable energy resources are
not used on a large scale yet, but they offer an attractive alternative for
"Role of Road
Transport in UK's Energy Policy," T.J. Price (Dept. Appl. Energy, Cranfield
Univ., Bedford MK43 0AL, UK), S.D. Probert, Appl. Energy, 50(1),
There is growing concern in the UK about increasing pollution and dwindling
fossil-fuel reserves. The government's transportation policy needs to shift its
emphasis from road to rail transport, and car ownership should be perceived as a
Oil Remains the Pre-eminent Source of Energy,"
OPEC Bull., pp. 4-7, Sep. 1995.
An interview with Rilwanu Lukman, Secretary General of OPEC, who states that
the organization is against taxes that discourage the use of oil in favor of
other forms of energy, such as coal, that are more harmful to the environment.
Many of these taxes are really designed to help the governments of consuming
countries reduce their budget deficits, and are not used to improve the
environment. Such taxes limit the revenues of oil producers so that they are
unable to invest enough in exploration production to meet future demand.
Intensity: A New Look," H. Khatib (Comm. for Developing Countries, World
Energy Council, POB 925387, Amman, Jordan), Energy Policy,
23(8), 727-729, Aug. 1995.
Because countries vary in their means of converting gross domestic product
(GDP) into U.S. dollars, calculations of energy intensity (usually kg oil
equivalent per U.S. dollar of GDP) are distorted. Presenting GDP in terms of
purchasing power parity (PPP$) helps to alleviate this distortion and allows the
energy intensity of developing countries to be presented in a more favorable
way. However, the new calculations should not interfere with efforts to reduce
energy intensities. Both the present value of energy intensity and the
improvement of this value over time are important.
Heaton Forests as Energy Reserves," C.L. Shaw (Assoc. Intl. Resour. &
Develop., 185 Alewife Brook Pkwy., Cambridge MA 02138), ibid., 23(7),
607-617, July 1995.
It is a common assumption that woodfuels are inferior goods and that, in a
poor country, per capita income will lead to increased use of woodfuel
substitutes. While this may be true in the long term, evidence for Madagascar
suggests that in the short and medium term, woodfuels are normal goods. Reliance
on income gains to alleviate pressure on forests from energy consumption is not
sound environmental and energy policy.
Environmental Policies of the Developed and Developing Countries Within the
Evolving Oceania and South-East Asia Trading Bloc," R.M. Mackay (Mackay
Res., Firs Hollow, S. Park, Sevenoaks, Kent TN13 1EL, UK), S.D. Probert, Appl.
Energy, 51(4), 369-400, 1995.
Reliable partnerships between energy-rich and energy-poor countries and
between developed and developing countries is required if the world is to
progress in a sustainable manner. The Oceania and South-East Asia trading bloc
is emerging as such a partnership. Any other approach to foreign investment
could prove disastrous for the region as a whole.
Sustainable Energy Future," N.G. Ketting (Electricity Generating Bd., POB
575, 6800 AN Arnhem, Neth.), Energy Policy,
23(7), 637-638, July 1995.
Disagrees with an idea expressed in a Greenpeace report (Towards
a Fossil-Free Energy Future) of rapidly reducing fossil fuel consumption,
and banning hydropower and nuclear energy at the same time. This would make us
overdependent on technological breakthroughs. During the transition to renewable
energy options, we will still need fossil fuels as well as nuclear energy if
economic development, particularly in the developing countries, is to move
"From Rio to
Beijing: Engendering the Energy Debate," E.W. Cecelski (Bahnstr. 24,
D-51688 Wipperf?rth, Ger.), ibid., 23(6), 561-575, June
Suggests that mutual concerns of energy and gender forums could be addressed
jointly, furthering both the Rio energy program goal of sustainable development
and the Beijing women's agenda of development, equality and peace. Points out
previously neglected issues for gender research such as promoting the energy
transition, energy efficiency, renewable energy and sustainable transport
Fuels," P.H. Abelson, Science,268(5213), 955, May 19, 1995.
An editorial discussing large-scale production of biodiesel oil produced
from renewable raw materials, such as soybean, rapeseed, and palm oils, a major
benefit of which is a net reduction in greenhouse gas emissions. Production of
biodiesel may be less energy intensive than production of alcohol from wood. The
U.S. and other countries should give high priority to its research and
development. In the U.S., favorable regulatory treatment for biodiesel oils
would speed their use, and the development of cheaper supplies. (For more
information contact J. Kenlon, Natl. Biodiesel Bd. (tel: 314 635 3893).
Power Usable Again," Nature, 375(6527), 91-92, May 11,
Because of the likelihood of future restrictions on the quantities of fossil
fuel that can be burned, major industrial countries may need to generate more
electricity from nuclear fission. Due to possible international consequences
such as the Chernobyl incident, international safeguards are needed such as
international supervision of reactor operators, high-level radioactive waste
disposal and plutonium stockpiling. Governments individually must invest
political capital in winning public consent for proposals for low-level
radioactive waste disposal.
Energy Use and Greenhouse Effects in Economic Development: Results from a
Cross-National Study of Developing Countries," J. Parikh (I. Gandhi Inst.,
Gen. Vaidya Marg, Goregaon East Bombay 400 065, India), V. Shukla, Global
Environ. Change, 5(2), 87-103, May 1995.
Assesses the impact on the greenhouse effect that results from economic
development. Uses a fixed effects model of the determinants of total energy
usage and then uses the determinants to estimate a country's greenhouse gas
emissions. Focuses on developing countries to study the effects of urbanization
by use sector and fuel type, and traces the emissions attributable to each of
these component fuel uses. Discusses policy implications for developing
and Social Impacts of Large Scale Hydroelectric Development: Who is Listening?"
D.M. Rosenberg (Dept. Fisheries & Oceans, 501 Univ. Crescent, Winnipeg MB
R3T 2N6, Can.), R.A. Bodaly, P.J. Usher,
Looks at several issues including greenhouse gas emissions. Under natural
conditions, the net greenhouse effect from upland forest and peatland areas in
Canada is about zero. However, microbial decomposition caused by flooding these
lands for hydroelectric reservoirs may upset the natural balance and release CH4
and CO2. The rate of emission after flooding may be similar to that
of power plants run by fossil fuels.
Energy Crisis: How Far Have We Come?" D.L. Feldman, Environment,
37(4), 16-20, 42-44, May 1995.
Since the first energy crisis 20 years ago, motor vehicles are more fuel
efficient, gas and oil prices are largely deregulated, and there is far greater
availability of oil in the spot market. However, the U.S. still relies heavily
on fossil fuel and the debate between market control or government regulation
continues. The complex relationships between government and markets suggest the
need for a policy characterized by continued research and development,
encouragement of energy conservation, and sensible supply initiatives.
International Assistance for Renewable Electricity Generation in Developing
Countries," K. Kozloff (World Resour. Inst., 1709 New York Ave. NW,
Washington DC 20006), World Resour. Rev., 7(1), 47-62, Mar.
Renewable energy technologies would allow developing countries to expand
their power production without contributing to global warming. However,
industrialized countries have had more success at increasing the use of
renewables among themselves than in the developing countries. Examines market
and policy barriers that inhibit greater use of renewables in developing
countries, past development assistance for renewable electric generation, and
ways to improve the effectiveness of international assistance in stimulating
sustainable markets for these technologies.
Management in 'Yuppieland'," S. Peake (Royal Inst. Intl. Affairs, 10 St.
James's Square, London SW1 4LE, UK), Energy Policy, 23(2),
179-180, Feb. 1995.
A report on the 22nd European Transport Forum (Univ. Warwick, U.K.,
1994) and its major theme of incorporating energy and environmental
considerations into transport decisions. The Netherlands has led the way towards
fully integrated demand management, but the most effective measures, increased
fuel prices, vehicle taxes, parking charges and road pricing, are unpopular. The
move towards demand management is growing in the U.K. with emphasis on changing
behavior and on land-use planning to reduce traffic growth. The U.K. should
adopt more effective measures, including higher fuel prices, lower speed limits,
tax incentives for home-based work, and more investment in nonmotorized
Management: The Third Wave," F.P. Sioshansi (Elect. Power Res. Inst., 3412
Hillview Ave., Palo Alto CA 94304), ibid., 111-114.
Demand-side management (DSM), which evolved in the early 1970s, is about to
enter a more mature phase as the U.S. electric power industry prepares for a
competitive business environment. Only DSM measures that make good business
sense will be pursued, and depending on future utility business strategies, DSM
practices will vary among regions and utility companies.
"An Evaluation of
the Effectiveness of US CAFE [Corporate Average Fuel Economy] Policy," E.G.
Kirby (Sch. Mgmt., Univ. Kentucky, Lexington KY 40506), ibid., 107-109.
Evaluates the effectiveness of minimum automobile fuel economy standards,
finding that over the past 20 years overall fuel efficiency has increased and
the amount of imported oil used by each vehicle has decreased. However, overall
oil importation has increased due to the increase in the number of cars on the
road and the decrease in the real price of gasoline. Recommends policies that
will reduce the number of cars and demand for gasoline, to achieve an overall
reduction in oil imports.
Development in China: National Policies and Regional Strategies," K. Wu
(East-West Ctr., 1777 East-West Rd., Honolulu HI 96848), B. Li, ibid.,
Formulates national energy policies in China for specific forms of energy
(oil, coal, natural gas, hydropower and nuclear), and determines regional
strategies by the location of energy resources. Even though trends in the
development of energy resources are unique to China, the conclusion drawn from
analysis of China are useful for other developing countries that are large,
resource-rich and experiencing rapid economic growth.
Conservation in China: An International Perspective," Z.X. Zhang (Dept.
General Econ., Landbouw Univ. Wageningen, POB 8130, 6700 EW Wageningen, Neth.),
Reviews China's energy conservation to date and its potential for
longer-term energy conservation, using a sector-by-sector comparison of energy
intensity. Concludes that there is a need for drastic reform of China's energy
policies combined with fundamental reform of aid and loan practices.
of Electricity in Maryland: Effects on Pollution, Investment, and Prices,"
K. Palmer (Resources for the Future, 1616 P St. NW, Washington DC 20036), A.
Krupnick et al., Energy J., 16(1), 1-26, Jan. 1995.
To date, social costing has been applied only to the evaluation of new
sources of electricity. Application only at the investment stage may lead to
reduced investment in new resources, increased use of existing generation
resources and higher emissions of key pollutants. Applying social costing to
dispatching new and used generating units generally leads to increased levels of
investment in clean technologies, lower levels of emissions and only moderate
"Markets for Energy Efficiency," H. Huntington, L. Schipper, A.H.
Sanstad, Eds., Energy Policy, 22(10), 795-883, Oct. 1994.
"Editor's Introduction," 795-797.
"Energy and the Environment: Something New Under the Sun?" J.D.
Scheraga (Clim. Change Div. (2122), U.S. EPA, 401 M St. SW, Washington DC
20460), 798-803. Questions about the relationship between energy use and climate
change are the same as those raised in the 1970s and 1980s about the
relationship between energy use, economic growth and environmental impacts. To
answer the questions we need to better understand the factors underlying energy
consumption decisions, the potential existence of market imperfections, the
divergence of private and social discount rates, and the process of innovation
that leads to the development of more energy-efficient technologies.
"The Energy-Efficiency Gap: What Does It Mean?" A.B. Jaffe (Dept.
Econ., Brandeis Univ., Waltham MA 02254), R.N. Stavins, 804-810.
"'Normal' Markets, Market Imperfections and Energy Efficiency,"
A.H. Sanstad (Energy Anal. Prog., Bldg. 90, Lawrence Berkeley Lab., Berkeley CA
94720), R.B. Howarth, 811-818.
"Economics and Rational Conservation Policy," G.E. Metcalf (Dept.
Econ., Tufts Univ., Medford MA 02150), 819-825.
"Technical Evidence for Assessing the Performance of Markets Affecting
Energy Efficiency," J.G. Koomey (Energy Anal. Prog., Lawrence Berkeley
Lab., Berkeley CA 94720), A.H. Sanstad, 826-832.
"Been Top Down So Long It Looks Like Bottom Up to Me," H.G.
Huntington (Energy Modeling Forum, 406 Terman Ctr., Stanford Univ., Stanford CA
"Demand-Side Management: Overcoming Market Barriers or Obscuring Real
Costs?" A.L. Nichols (Natl. Econ. Res. Assoc. Inc., One Main St., Cambridge
MA 02142), 840-847.
"On the Assessment of Utility Demand-Side Management Programs,"
M.D. Levine (Energy Anal. Prog., Lawrence Berkeley Lab., Berkeley CA 94720), R.
"The Consumer's Energy Analysis Environment," W. Kempton (Ctr.
Energy & Environ. Policy, Univ. Delaware, Newark DE 19716), L.L. Layne,
"Innovation and Organizational Networks: Barriers to Energy Efficiency
in the US Housing Industry," L. Lutzenhiser (Dept. Sociol., Washington
State Univ., Pullman WA 99164), 867-876.
"Modeling Energy Technology Choices: Which Investment Analysis Tools
Are Appropriate?" B.E. Johnson (Stanford Univ., 402 Terman Eng. Bldg.,
Stanford CA 94390), 877-883.
Paradox and the Diffusion of Conservation Technology," A.B. Jaffe (Dept.
Econ., Harvard Univ., Cambridge MA 02138), R.N. Stavins, Resour. &
Energy Econ., 16(2), 91-122, May 1994.
Focuses on the factors that cause the diffusion of apparently cost-effective
energy conservation technologies to be gradual, including those associated with
potential market failures. Analysis indicates how alternative policy
instruments, both economic incentives and direct regulations, can hasten the
diffusion of energy-conserving technologies.
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Index of Abbreviations