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Global Climate Change DigestArchives of the
Global Climate Change Digest

A Guide to Information on Greenhouse Gases and Ozone Depletion
Published July 1988 through June 1999

FROM VOLUME 8, NUMBER 2, FEBRUARY 1995

PROFESSIONAL PUBLICATIONS...
TRENDS


Item #d95feb18

"On the Effects of Stratospheric Circulation Changes on Trace Gas Trends," (see PROF. PUBS./GEN. INTEREST).


Item #d95feb19

"Differences in Recent Ground Surface Warming in Eastern and Western Canada: Evidence from Borehole Temperatures," K. Wang (Pacific Geosci. Ctr., 9860 W. Saanich Rd., Sidney BC V8L 4B2, Can.), T.J. Lewis et al., Geophys. Res. Lett., 21(24), 2689-2692, Dec. 1, 1994.

If the ground surface temperature increase is assumed to be linear, the temperature has warmed by 1.5 K since the mid-19th century in eastern Canada (based on 34 boreholes), but only by 0.8 K since the late 19th century in British Columbia and southern Yukon (51 boreholes).


Item #d95feb20

"Thoughts on Monitoring the Effects of Climate Change on the Surface Elevation of the Greenland Ice Sheet," R.J. Braithwaite (Geol. Surv. Greenland, Copenhagen, Denmark), Global & Planetary Change, 9(3-4), 251-261, Dec. 1994.

Studies surface elevation changes as a potential monitoring method for sea level rise, finding there is no evidence of any present trend of increased melting. Future climate warming will involve an accelerated thinning of the ablation area that could be detected in one or two decades against the background of natural fluctuations in surface elevation.


Item #d95feb21

"Quantile Spline Models for Global Temperature Change," R. Koenker (Dept. Econ., Univ. Illinois, Champaign IL 61820), F. Schorfheide, Clim. Change, 28(4), 395-404, Dec. 1994.

Model estimates offer statistical evidence of a break in the generally upward slope of the temperature series during the period from 1940 to 1965, a finding originally suggested by Hansen and Lebedeff.


Item #d95feb22

Two items from J. Clim., 7(11), Nov. 1994:

"Hemispheric Surface Air Temperature Variations: A Reanalysis and an Update to 1993," P.D. Jones (Sch. Environ. Sci., Univ. E. Anglia, Norwich NR4 7TJ, UK), 1794-1802. Uses data from many more stations than before, and a new and longer reference period, to produce a grid-box dataset of 5· x 5· temperature anomalies. The results change little from earlier analyses for the Northern Hemisphere average, indicating the robustness of earlier time series.

"On Recent Climate Trends in Selected Salmon-Hatching Areas of British Columbia," M. Danard (Dept. Computer Sci., Univ. Victoria, POB 1700, Victoria BC V8W 2Y2, Can.), T.S. Murty, 1803-1808. Since the 1960s, cold season precipitation has been decreasing, temperatures have been rising, snow water equivalents have been diminishing, and streamflows have been going down. However, the results may not be part of a global warming, but may be an amplification of the common Pacific/North American pattern.


Item #d95feb23

"Natural Disaster Reduction and Global Change," (see Global Climate Change Digest, Oct. 1994).


Item #d95feb24

Two items from J. Clim., 7(9), Sep. 1994:

"Iceberg Severity off Eastern North America: Its Relationship to Sea Ice Variability and Climate Change," J.R. Marko (Arctic Sciences Ltd., 1986 Mills Rd., R.R. 2, Sidney BC V8L 3S1, Can.), D.B. Fissel et al., 1335-1351. Develops an iceberg dissipation model that explains the major features of interannual and seasonal iceberg number variations in terms of sea ice extent parameters. If data for the last four decades represent a regional response to global warming, the response has been toward lower temperatures and higher ice extents, in contrast to the warming and ice retreat that have been predicted by most models.

"Long-Term Central Coastal California Precipitation Variability and Relationships to El Niño-Southern Oscillation," L. Haston (Dept. Geog. (8249), Calif. State Univ., Northridge CA 91330), J. Michaelsen, 1373-1387. Uses big-cone spruce tree-ring chronologies to reconstruct a precipitation record for the last 600 years. The modern period is characterized by low variability and one of the lowest rates of extreme events. The most unusual feature is increased variability and frequency of wet events during the Little Ice Age. Analysis of the relationship between ENSO events and reconstructed precipitation shows no clear, consistent response to ENSO.


Item #d95feb25

"Seasonal and Regional 300 hPa Heights, 300-1000 hPa Thicknesses and Associated 300 hPa Zonal Flow Changes in the Northern Hemisphere Between 1976 and 1990," G.R. Weber (Gesamtverband deutschen Steinkohlenbergbaus, Friedrichstr. 1, 4300 Essen 1, Ger.), Intl. J. Climatol., 14(7), 751-758, Aug.-Sep. 1994.

The 300 hPa heights rose in the tropics, rose somewhat less in the lower midlatitudes, and were lower in high latitudes. An increase in the zonal flow at 300 hPa can be derived for the subtropics and upper midlatitudes. Explores relationships between tropospheric thickness anomalies in the lower latitudes and changes in the 300 hPa height field elsewhere.


Item #d95feb26

"Global Decrease in Atmospheric Carbon Monoxide. . ," (see Global Climate Change Digest, Sep 1994).


Item #d95feb27

Two items from J. Geophys. Res., 99(D8), Aug. 20, 1994:

"Secular Trend and Seasonal Variability of the Column Abundance of N2O Above the Jungfraujoch Station Determined from IR Solar Spectra," R. Zander (Inst. Astrophys., Univ. Liège, 5 Ave. Cointe, B-4000 Liège, Belgium), D.H. Ehhalt et al., 16,745-16,756. The exponential rate of increase for 1951-1984 was estimsted to be 0.23 ± 0.04% per yr (1s), substantially lower than for the 1984-1992 period. The preindustrial levels of N2O continued until 1951 with most of the increase in atmospheric N2O occurring thereafter.

"The Growth Rate and Distribution of Atmospheric Methane," (see Global Climate Change Digest, p. 3, Oct.).


Item #d95feb28

"Climatic Implications of an 8000-Year Hydrogen Isotope Time Series from Bristlecone Pine Trees," X. Feng (Div. Geol. & Planetary Sci., 170-25, Calif. Inst. Technol., Pasadena CA 91125), S. Epstein, Science, 265(5175), 1079-1081, Aug. 19, 1994.

The time series indicates the presence of a postglacial climate optimum 6800 years ago and a continuous cooling since then. Qualitative agreement with records from other sources shows that these climate changes were global.


Item #d95feb29

"Climatic Changes, Desertification and the Republic of Sudan," S.H. Alvi (Dept. Civ. Eng., Univ. Bahrain, POB 32038, Bahrain), GeoJournal, 33(4), 393-399, Aug. 1994.

A review of meteorological data for 30-50 years confirms that the temperatures are rising and rainfall is declining. Analysis of relative humidity, clouds, radiation and evaporation also confirms the trend, which may accelerate environmental degradation and desertification.


Item #d95feb30

"Erythemal UV-B Irradiance. . .under Ozone Deficiencies in Winter/Spring 1993," (see Global Climate Change Digest, Jan 1995).


Item #d95feb31

"Temporal Discontinuities in Precipitation in the Central North American Prairie," P.R. Kemp (Phytotron, Duke Univ., Durham NC 27706), J.M. Cornelius, J.F. Reynolds, Intl. J. Climatol., 14(5), 539-557, June 1994.

Identifies statistically significant discontinuities that appear to represent shifts in regional climate during the last 115 years. All transitions were associated with changes in May, June and July rainfall. The relatively strong periodicity shown by the decadal discontinuities supports the contention that drought climates are triggered or ended by a cyclic phenomenon.


Item #d95feb32

"The Response of Lake Levels and Areas to Climatic Change," I.M. Mason (Mullard Space Sci. Lab., Univ. Coll. London, Holmbury St. Mary, Dorking, Surrey RH5 6NT, UK), M.A.J. Guzkowska et al., Clim. Change, 27(2), 161-197, June 1994.

Derives solutions to the water balance equation giving the response of the level and area of closed lakes to steps, spikes and sinusoidal variations in aridity. For all of the world's large closed lakes (»200), satellite remote sensing of lake levels and areas is sensitive enough to monitor variations in average basin precipitation of order 1%-10% on the time-scale of years to decades.


Item #d95feb33

"UV-B Higher in Germany in 1993 than in 1992," (see Global Climate Change Digest, Jan 1995).


Item #d95feb34

"Variations in Dew-Point Temperatures in the Southern United States," K.G. Henderson (Dept. Geog., Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge LA 70803), Phys. Geog., 15(1), 23-37, Jan.-Feb. 1994.

Recent increases in southerly air flow in spring and autumn have led to a significant increase in dew-point temperatures in many areas. However, there is no evidence to suggest that increased evaporation from greenhouse warming has altered dew-point temperatures.


Item #d95feb35

"Assessing the Onset of Spring: A Climatological Perspective," M.D. Schwartz (Dept. Geog., POB 413, Sabin Hall, Univ. Wisconsin, Milwaukee WI 53201), ibid., 14(6), 536-550, Nov.-Dec. 1993.

Data for the onset of the spring "green wave" and frost dates from 1908 to 1987 show considerable geographic and temporal variations, and suggest that the threat of late spring frost damage may have decreased slightly from 1960 to 1987.

Specialized Papers


Item #d95feb36

Discussion on use of the singular spectrum approach to identify a low-frequency oscillation in the global surface air temperature record, Nature, 372(6507), 507-509, Dec. 8, 1994.


Item #d95feb37

"Spectral Approach to Optimal Estimation of the Global Average Temperature," S.S.P. Shen, G.R. North (Clim. Sys. Res. Prog., Texas A&M Univ., Coll. Sta. TX 77843), K-Y. Kim, J. Clim., 7(12), 1999-2007, Dec. 1994.


Item #d95feb38

"On a Fourier Method of Detecting Climatic Transitions," F. Lombard (Dept. Statistics, Rand Afrikaans Univ., POB 524, 2006 Auckland Pk., S. Africa), Beitr. Phys. Atmos., 67(3), 201-208, Aug. 1994.


Item #d95feb39

"Creation of Homogeneous Composite Climatological Reference Series," T.C. Peterson (Global Clim. Lab., Natl. Clim. Data Ctr., Asheville NC 28801), D.R. Easterling, Intl. J. Climatol., 14(6), 671-679, July 1994.


Item #d95feb40

"Visualization of Trends and Fluctuations in Climatic Records," J. Garbrecht (ARS, USDA, POB 1430, Durant OK 74702), G.P. Fernandez, Water Resour. Bull., 30(2), 297 ff., Apr. 1994.

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