February 28, 2007
GCRIO Program Overview
Our extensive collection of documents.
Archives of the
Global Climate Change Digest
A Guide to Information on Greenhouse Gases and Ozone Depletion
Published July 1988 through June 1999
FROM VOLUME 8, NUMBER 2, FEBRUARY 1995
the Effects of Stratospheric Circulation Changes on Trace Gas
Trends," (see PROF. PUBS./GEN. INTEREST).
"Differences in Recent Ground Surface Warming in Eastern and
Western Canada: Evidence from Borehole Temperatures," K.
Wang (Pacific Geosci. Ctr., 9860 W. Saanich Rd., Sidney BC V8L
4B2, Can.), T.J. Lewis et al., Geophys. Res. Lett., 21(24),
2689-2692, Dec. 1, 1994.
If the ground surface temperature increase is assumed to be
linear, the temperature has warmed by 1.5 K since the mid-19th
century in eastern Canada (based on 34 boreholes), but only by
0.8 K since the late 19th century in British Columbia and
southern Yukon (51 boreholes).
"Thoughts on Monitoring the Effects of Climate Change on the
Surface Elevation of the Greenland Ice Sheet," R.J.
Braithwaite (Geol. Surv. Greenland, Copenhagen, Denmark),
Global & Planetary Change, 9(3-4), 251-261, Dec.
Studies surface elevation changes as a potential monitoring
method for sea level rise, finding there is no evidence of any
present trend of increased melting. Future climate warming will
involve an accelerated thinning of the ablation area that could
be detected in one or two decades against the background of
natural fluctuations in surface elevation.
"Quantile Spline Models for Global Temperature Change,"
R. Koenker (Dept. Econ., Univ. Illinois, Champaign IL 61820), F.
Schorfheide, Clim. Change, 28(4), 395-404, Dec.
Model estimates offer statistical evidence of a break in the
generally upward slope of the temperature series during the
period from 1940 to 1965, a finding originally suggested by
Hansen and Lebedeff.
from J. Clim., 7(11), Nov. 1994:
"Hemispheric Surface Air Temperature Variations: A
Reanalysis and an Update to 1993," P.D. Jones (Sch. Environ.
Sci., Univ. E. Anglia, Norwich NR4 7TJ, UK), 1794-1802. Uses data
from many more stations than before, and a new and longer
reference period, to produce a grid-box dataset of 5· x 5·
temperature anomalies. The results change little from earlier
analyses for the Northern Hemisphere average, indicating the
robustness of earlier time series.
"On Recent Climate Trends in Selected Salmon-Hatching
Areas of British Columbia," M. Danard (Dept. Computer Sci.,
Univ. Victoria, POB 1700, Victoria BC V8W 2Y2, Can.), T.S. Murty,
1803-1808. Since the 1960s, cold season precipitation has been
decreasing, temperatures have been rising, snow water equivalents
have been diminishing, and streamflows have been going down.
However, the results may not be part of a global warming, but may
be an amplification of the common Pacific/North American pattern.
"Natural Disaster Reduction and Global Change," (see Global
Climate Change Digest, Oct. 1994).
from J. Clim., 7(9), Sep. 1994:
"Iceberg Severity off Eastern North America: Its
Relationship to Sea Ice Variability and Climate Change,"
J.R. Marko (Arctic Sciences Ltd., 1986 Mills Rd., R.R. 2, Sidney
BC V8L 3S1, Can.), D.B. Fissel et al., 1335-1351. Develops an
iceberg dissipation model that explains the major features of
interannual and seasonal iceberg number variations in terms of
sea ice extent parameters. If data for the last four decades
represent a regional response to global warming, the response has
been toward lower temperatures and higher ice extents, in
contrast to the warming and ice retreat that have been predicted
by most models.
"Long-Term Central Coastal California Precipitation
Variability and Relationships to El Niño-Southern
Oscillation," L. Haston (Dept. Geog. (8249), Calif. State
Univ., Northridge CA 91330), J. Michaelsen, 1373-1387. Uses
big-cone spruce tree-ring chronologies to reconstruct a
precipitation record for the last 600 years. The modern period is
characterized by low variability and one of the lowest rates of
extreme events. The most unusual feature is increased variability
and frequency of wet events during the Little Ice Age. Analysis
of the relationship between ENSO events and reconstructed
precipitation shows no clear, consistent response to ENSO.
"Seasonal and Regional 300 hPa Heights, 300-1000 hPa
Thicknesses and Associated 300 hPa Zonal Flow Changes in the
Northern Hemisphere Between 1976 and 1990," G.R. Weber
(Gesamtverband deutschen Steinkohlenbergbaus, Friedrichstr. 1,
4300 Essen 1, Ger.), Intl. J. Climatol., 14(7),
751-758, Aug.-Sep. 1994.
The 300 hPa heights rose in the tropics, rose somewhat less in
the lower midlatitudes, and were lower in high latitudes. An
increase in the zonal flow at 300 hPa can be derived for the
subtropics and upper midlatitudes. Explores relationships between
tropospheric thickness anomalies in the lower latitudes and
changes in the 300 hPa height field elsewhere.
"Global Decrease in Atmospheric Carbon Monoxide. . ,"
(see Global Climate Change Digest, Sep 1994).
from J. Geophys. Res., 99(D8), Aug. 20, 1994:
"Secular Trend and Seasonal Variability of the Column
Abundance of N2O Above the Jungfraujoch Station
Determined from IR Solar Spectra," R. Zander (Inst.
Astrophys., Univ. Liège, 5 Ave. Cointe, B-4000 Liège, Belgium),
D.H. Ehhalt et al., 16,745-16,756. The exponential rate of
increase for 1951-1984 was estimsted to be 0.23 ± 0.04% per yr
(1s), substantially lower than for the 1984-1992 period. The
preindustrial levels of N2O continued until 1951 with
most of the increase in atmospheric N2O occurring
"The Growth Rate and Distribution of Atmospheric
Methane," (see Global Climate Change Digest, p. 3,
"Climatic Implications of an 8000-Year Hydrogen Isotope Time
Series from Bristlecone Pine Trees," X. Feng (Div. Geol.
& Planetary Sci., 170-25, Calif. Inst. Technol., Pasadena CA
91125), S. Epstein, Science, 265(5175), 1079-1081,
Aug. 19, 1994.
The time series indicates the presence of a postglacial
climate optimum 6800 years ago and a continuous cooling since
then. Qualitative agreement with records from other sources shows
that these climate changes were global.
"Climatic Changes, Desertification and the Republic of
Sudan," S.H. Alvi (Dept. Civ. Eng., Univ. Bahrain, POB
32038, Bahrain), GeoJournal, 33(4), 393-399, Aug.
A review of meteorological data for 30-50 years confirms that
the temperatures are rising and rainfall is declining. Analysis
of relative humidity, clouds, radiation and evaporation also
confirms the trend, which may accelerate environmental
degradation and desertification.
"Erythemal UV-B Irradiance. . .under Ozone Deficiencies in
Winter/Spring 1993," (see Global Climate Change Digest,
"Temporal Discontinuities in Precipitation in the Central
North American Prairie," P.R. Kemp (Phytotron, Duke Univ.,
Durham NC 27706), J.M. Cornelius, J.F. Reynolds, Intl. J.
Climatol., 14(5), 539-557, June 1994.
Identifies statistically significant discontinuities that
appear to represent shifts in regional climate during the last
115 years. All transitions were associated with changes in May,
June and July rainfall. The relatively strong periodicity shown
by the decadal discontinuities supports the contention that
drought climates are triggered or ended by a cyclic phenomenon.
Response of Lake Levels and Areas to Climatic Change," I.M.
Mason (Mullard Space Sci. Lab., Univ. Coll. London, Holmbury St.
Mary, Dorking, Surrey RH5 6NT, UK), M.A.J. Guzkowska et al., Clim.
Change, 27(2), 161-197, June 1994.
Derives solutions to the water balance equation giving the
response of the level and area of closed lakes to steps, spikes
and sinusoidal variations in aridity. For all of the world's
large closed lakes (»200), satellite remote sensing of lake
levels and areas is sensitive enough to monitor variations in
average basin precipitation of order 1%-10% on the time-scale of
years to decades.
"UV-B Higher in Germany in 1993 than in 1992," (see Global
Climate Change Digest, Jan 1995).
"Variations in Dew-Point Temperatures in the Southern United
States," K.G. Henderson (Dept. Geog., Louisiana State Univ.,
Baton Rouge LA 70803), Phys. Geog., 15(1), 23-37,
Recent increases in southerly air flow in spring and autumn
have led to a significant increase in dew-point temperatures in
many areas. However, there is no evidence to suggest that
increased evaporation from greenhouse warming has altered
"Assessing the Onset of Spring: A Climatological
Perspective," M.D. Schwartz (Dept. Geog., POB 413, Sabin
Hall, Univ. Wisconsin, Milwaukee WI 53201), ibid., 14(6),
536-550, Nov.-Dec. 1993.
Data for the onset of the spring "green wave" and
frost dates from 1908 to 1987 show considerable geographic and
temporal variations, and suggest that the threat of late spring
frost damage may have decreased slightly from 1960 to 1987.
Discussion on use of the singular spectrum approach to identify a
low-frequency oscillation in the global surface air temperature
record, Nature, 372(6507), 507-509, Dec. 8, 1994.
"Spectral Approach to Optimal Estimation of the Global
Average Temperature," S.S.P. Shen, G.R. North (Clim. Sys.
Res. Prog., Texas A&M Univ., Coll. Sta. TX 77843), K-Y. Kim, J.
Clim., 7(12), 1999-2007, Dec. 1994.
a Fourier Method of Detecting Climatic Transitions," F.
Lombard (Dept. Statistics, Rand Afrikaans Univ., POB 524, 2006
Auckland Pk., S. Africa), Beitr. Phys. Atmos., 67(3),
201-208, Aug. 1994.
"Creation of Homogeneous Composite Climatological Reference
Series," T.C. Peterson (Global Clim. Lab., Natl. Clim. Data
Ctr., Asheville NC 28801), D.R. Easterling, Intl. J. Climatol., 14(6),
671-679, July 1994.
"Visualization of Trends and Fluctuations in Climatic
Records," J. Garbrecht (ARS, USDA, POB 1430, Durant OK
74702), G.P. Fernandez, Water Resour. Bull., 30(2),
297 ff., Apr. 1994.
Guide to Publishers
Index of Abbreviations