February 28, 2007
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Global Climate Change Digest
A Guide to Information on Greenhouse Gases and Ozone Depletion
Published July 1988 through June 1999
FROM VOLUME 8, NUMBER 2, FEBRUARY 1995
Sheets and Sea Level," and "Dominant Influence of
Atmospheric Circulation on Snow Accumulation in Greenland over
the Past 18,000 Years," (see PROF. PUBS./GEN. INTEREST).
related items in Nature, 372(6507), Dec. 15, 1994:
"Ice Cores North and South," J. Jouzel (Lab. Modél.
Clim. & Environ., CEA-DSM, Ctr. d'études de Saclay, Orme des
merisiers, Gif-sur-Yvette, F-91191, France), 612-613. Comments on
the following paper.
"Climate Correlations Between Greenland and Antarctica
During the Past 100,000 Years," M. Bender (Grad. Sch.
Oceanog., Univ. Rhode Island, Kingston RI 02881), T. Sowers et
al., 663-666. Compares the oxygen isotope profiles of deep ice
cores in east Antarctica and Greenland. Finds that interstadials
occurred in Antarctica when those in Greenland lasted longer than
2,000 years. The climate teleconnection between the areas may be
due to partial deglaciation and changes in ocean circulation. Ice
older than 115 kyr in the Greenland Ice Sheet Project 2 (GISP2)
core shows rapid variations in the d18O of O2 that have no
counterpart in the Antarctica record, indicating that age-depth
relationships for this part of GISP2 may be significantly
"Fast Flickers in the Tropics," R. Zahn (GEOMAR Res.
Ctr., Wischhofstr. 1-3, 24148 Kiel, Ger.), ibid., 621-622.
Abrupt climate variability has been inferred from
environmental records from the subpolar North Atlantic and the
Greenland ice sheet. However, F. Gasse and E. van Campo (Earth
Planet. Sci. Lett., 126, 435-456, 1994) conclude that
climate in tropical regions did not always parallel that at
higher latitudes. Discusses the studies needed to better
understand coupled ocean-atmosphere forcing of continental
Accumulation Record from the GISP2 Core as an Indicator of
Climate Change Throughout the Holocene," D.A. Meese (U.S.
Army Cold Regions Res. & Eng. Lab., 72 Lyme Rd., Hanover NH
03755), A.J. Gow et al., Science, 266(5191),
1680-1682, Dec. 9, 1994.
Establishes a depth-age scale and accumulation history on the
GISP2 deep core for the Holocene, providing the most continuously
dated record of annual layer accumulation now available. Examines
climate events, including "Little Ice Age" type events.
"Massive Iceberg Discharges as Triggers for Global Climate
Change," (see PROF. PUBS./GEN. INTEREST).
items from Global & Planetary Change, 9(3-4),
"Simulating Past Climates. The Data-Model
Connection," R.Z. Poore (USGS, MS 955, Natl. Ctr., Reston VA
22092), M.A. Chandler, 165-167. Reports on the Pliocene Research,
Interpretation and Synoptic Mapping Project (PRISM) and the GISS
GCM. GISS simulation using PRISM data provides a first step in
the interactive process of data collection, analysis, model
experimentation and data/model comparison. The project involves
close cooperation between data and modeling groups.
"Joint Investigations of the Middle Pliocene Climate I:
PRISM Paleoenvironmental Reconstructions," H. Dowsett (USGS,
970 Natl. Ctr., Reston VA 22092), R. Thompson et al., 169-195.
Reconstruction from paleontological data indicates that sea level
was at least 25 m higher than present, due partly to the reduced
size of the East Antarctic Ice Sheet. Sea surface temperatures
were similar to present in tropical regions but were
significantly warmer at higher latitudes. The Arctic and
Antarctic were seasonally ice free with greatly reduced sea ice
extent relative to present winter.
". . II. GISS GCM Northern Hemisphere Results," M.
Chandler (NASA Goddard Inst. Space Studies, 2880 Broadway, New
York NY 10025), D. Rind, R. Thompson, 197-219. A simulation
specifying sea surface temperatures and vegetation distributions
results in 1.4·C warming, annually averaged over the Northern
Hemisphere. Warming is greatest at high latitudes. At low
latitudes, temperatures are mostly unchanged except for an
anomalous 3·C cooling over eastern Africa that is supported by
"New Atmospheric pCO2 Estimates from
Paleosols During the Late Paleocene/Early Eocene Global Warming
Interval," A. Sinha (Dept. Geol. Sci., Univ. Southern
Calif., Los Angeles CA 90089), L.D. Stott, 297-307. Carbon
isotopic data from the co-existing paleosols organic matter and
carbonates from a terrestrial sequence contradict the notion that
an increase in atmospheric CO2 level was the cause of
extreme warming during this period.
"Proxy Paradox for P-Prediction," (see MARINE
PRODUCTIVITY, this issue.)
"Marked Post-18th Century Environmental Change in
High-Arctic Ecosystems," (see Global Climate Change
Digest, Oct. 1994).
"Climate Variations in Europe over the Past 140 kyr Deduced
from Rock Magnetism," (see Global Climate Change Digest,
items from Nature, 371(6495), Sep. 22, 1994:
"Learning from Past Climates," (see Global
Climate Change Digest, Jan. 1995).
Articles by Zahn, Keigwin et al., and McManus et al. were
listed in Global Climate Change Digest, pp. 2-3, Oct.
"Drilled Cores Divulge History of Continental and Oceanic
Paleoclimate," Ocean Drilling Prog. (Sci. Operations, Texas
A&M Univ. Res. Pk., 1000 Discovery Dr., College Sta. TX
77845), Eos, 435-437, Sep. 20, 1994.
Sediment cores from the Amazon deep-sea fan contain a
high-resolution record that is potentially of the same resolution
as the ice core record, but in a critical equatorial area.
"Climatic Implications of an 8000-Year Hydrogen Isotope Time
Series from Bristlecone Pine Trees," (see Trends section).
"Chill over the Cretaceous," and "Cooler Estimates
of Cretaceous Temperatures," (see Global Climate Change
Digest, Sep. 1994).
"Climatic Influences on the Growth of Subalpine Trees in the
Colorado Front Range," R. Villalba (Dept. Geog., Univ.
Colorado, Boulder CO 80309), T.T. Veblen, J. Ogden, Ecology, 75(5),
1450-1462, July 1994.
Uses correlation and response function analyses to compare
variations in ring widths with monthly temperature and
precipitation records. At the driest sites growth of Picea
engelmannii and Abies lasiocarpa tracked climatic
variation similarly. At mesic and wet sites, however, these
species differed in their responses. Concludes that differences
in tree growth responses to climatic variation can be used an
indicators of environmental differences among subalpine habitats.
Ice-Core-Based Record of Biomass Burning in the Arctic and
Subarctic, 1750-1980," (see Global Climate Change Digest,
"Drowned Trees Record Dry Spell," and "Extreme and
Persistent Drought in California and Patagonia During Mediaeval
Time," (see Global Climate Change Digest, p. 4,
"Younger Dryas Age Advance of Franz Josef Glacier in the
Southern Alps of New Zealand," (see Global Climate Change
Digest, June 1994).
Paleoclimatic Record Provided by Eolian Deposition in the Deep
Sea: The Geologic History of Wind," D.K. Rea (Dept. Geol.
Sci., Univ. Michigan, Ann Arbor MI 48109), Rev. Geophys., 32(2),
159-195, May 1994.
Reviews the use of dust records preserved in deep sea
sediments as a proxy indicator of past continental climates and
atmospheric transport processes. Eolian flux data show that most
of the Northern Hemisphere was more arid during glacial maxima,
with three to five times as much dust transported during glacial
stages than during interglacials.
"Deep Pleistocene Iceberg Plowmarks on the Yermak Plateau:
Sidescan and 3.5 kHz Evidence for Thick Calving Ice Fronts and a
Possible Marine Ice Sheet in the Arctic Ocean," P.R. Vogt
(Mar. Geosci. Div., Naval Res. Lab., Washington DC 20375), K.
Crane, E. Sundvor, Geology, 22(5), 403-406, May
Sonar testing results imply the past existence of continuous
grounded ice, 400-600 m thick, consistent with but not proving
the existence of an Arctic ice sheet during the Pleistocene. If
the theory of a floating ice sheet were proven, it could mean
that Eurasian and Canadian ice sheets were once physically
linked, challenging current modeling approaches.
"Origins and Variations of Fluoride in Greenland
Precipitation," (see Global Climate Change Digest,
"Estimating Thermal Forcings of Greenhouse Gases from
Ancient Climates: The Problem of Statistical Confounding,"
(see Global Climate Change Digest, Aug. 1994).
"Trends in Stomatal Density and 13C/12C Ratios of Pinus
flexilis Needles During Last Glacial-Interglacial
Cycle," (see Global Climate Change Digest, Aug.
"Influence of Atmospheric CO2 on the Decline of
C4 Plants During the Last Deglaciation," (see Global
Climate Change Digest, June 1994).
"South American Tree Rings Show Declining d13C Trend,"
(see Global Climate Change Digest, p. 6, Aug.).
Continental Carbon Cycle During the Last Glacial Maximum,"
(see Global Climate Change Digest, p. 6, Aug.).
"Measures of Productivity," and "231Pa/230Th
Ratios in Sediments as a Proxy for Past Changes in Southern Ocean
Productivity," (see Global Climate Change Digest, p.
selago Hook. Used to Estimate Glacier Fluctuations and
Climatic History in the Kerguelen Islands over the Last Two
Centuries," Y. Frenot (Sta. Biol., Univ. Rennes I, URA 696
CNRS, F-35380 Paimpont, France), J.C. Gloaguen et al., Oecologia, 95(1),
Uses a new biological dating technique, combined with
geomorphological observations, to reconstruct the cool and warm
events in these subantarctic islands. The current dramatic
glacial retreat on Kerguelen is related to a major change in the
climate and could illustrate a more general Southern Hemispheric
pattern of glacial fluctuations.
on seasonal precipitation timing and ice core records, Science, 266(5192),
1885-1886, Dec. 16, 1994.
"Subsurface Temperature-Depth Profiles, Anomalies Due to
Climatic Ground Surface Temperature Changes or Groundwater Flow
Effects," I.T. Kukkonen (Dept. Geophys., Geol. Surv.
Finland, FIN-02150 Espoo, Finland), V. Cermák, J. Safanda, Global
& Planetary Change, 9(3-4), 221-232, Dec. 1994.
"Greenland Precipitation Estimates from the Atmospheric
Moisture Budget," F.M. Robasky (Byrd Polar Res. Ctr., Ohio
State Univ., 108 Scott Hall, 1090 Carmack Rd., Columbus OH
43210), D.H. Bromwich, Geophys. Res. Lett., 21(23),
2495-2498, Nov. 15, 1994.
from ibid., 21(22), Nov. 1, 1994:
"Climatic Impact of the A.D. 1783 Asama (Japan) Eruption
Was Minimal: Evidence from the GISP2 Ice Core," G.A.
Zielinski (Glacier Res. Group, Univ. New Hampshire, Durham NH
03824), R.J. Fiacco et al., 2365-2368.
"High-Resolution d13C Measurements of Oak Show a
Previously Unobserved Spring Depletion," N. Ogle
(Radiocarbon Lab., Palaeoecol. Ctr., Sch. Geosci., Queen's Univ.,
Belfast, UK), F.G. McCormac, 2373-2375.
"Terrestrial Carbon Storage at the LGM [Last Glacial
Maximum]," M.I. Bird (Res. Sch. Earth Sci., Australian Natl.
Univ., Canberra ACT 0200, Australia), J. Lloyd, G.D. Farquhar, Nature, 371(6498),
566, Oct. 13, 1994.
"Small Changes in the Sea Surface Temperature During the
Last 20,000 Years: Molecular Evidence from the Western Tropical
Pacific," N. Ohkouchi (Ocean Res. Inst., Univ. Tokyo, 1-15-1
Minamidai Nakano-ku Tokyo 164, Japan), K. Kawamura et al., Geophys.
Res. Lett., 21(20), 2207-2210, Oct. 1, 1994.
Correspondence concerning reconstructing Pleistocene atmospheric
CO2 concentrations based on the stable carbon isotope
composition (d13C) of mosses and sedges from peat cores, Nature, 371(6493),
111-112, Sep. 8, 1994.
Dole Effect and Its Variations During the Last 130,000 Years as
Measured in the Vostok Ice Core," M. Bender (Grad. Sch.
Oceanog., Univ. Rhode Island, Kingston RI 02881), T. Sowers, L.
Labeyrie, Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 8(3), 363-376,
concerning climate and the pollen record, Nature, 370(6490),
513, Aug. 18, 1994.
"Moisture Supply for Northern Ice-Sheet Growth During the
Last Glacial Maximum," D. Hebbein (Fachbereich
Geowissenschaften, Univ. Bremen, POB 330440, D-28334 Bremen,
Ger.), T. Dokken et al., ibid., 370(6488), 357-360,
Aug. 4, 1994.
"Zinc and Carbon Co-Limitation of Marine
Phytoplankton," (see Global Climate Change Digest, p.
"Spatial Regression Methods in Dendroclimatology: A Review
and Comparison of Two Techniques," E.R. Cook (Tree-Ring
Lab., Lamont-Doherty Earth Observ., Palisades NY 10964), K.R.
Briffa, P.D. Jones, Intl. J. Climatol., 14(4),
379-402, May 1994.
"High Resolution Climatic Information from Short Firn Cores,
Western Dronning Maud Land, Antarctica," E. Isaksson (Dept.
Phys. Geog., Univ. Stockholm, S-106 91 Stockholm, Swed.), W.
Karlén, Clim. Change, 26(4), 421-434, Apr. 1994.
"Solar Influences on Holocene Treeline Altitude Variability
in the Sierra Nevada," L.A. Scuderi (Geog. Dept., Univ. New
Mexico, Albuquerque NM 87131), Phys. Geog., 15(2),
146-165, Mar.-Apr. 1994.
5000-Year Record of Extreme Floods and Climate Change in the
Southwestern United States," (see Global Climate Change
Digest, June 1994).
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Index of Abbreviations