February 28, 2007
GCRIO Program Overview
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Global Climate Change Digest
A Guide to Information on Greenhouse Gases and Ozone Depletion
Published July 1988 through June 1999
FROM VOLUME 8, NUMBER 1, JANUARY 1995
OF GENERAL INTEREST: GENERAL AND POLICY
"From Rio to Berlin: Managing Climate Change," D.G.
Victor (IIASA, A-2361 Laxenburg, Austria), J.E. Salt, Environment, 36(10),
6-15, 25-30, Dec. 1994.
Nations that have ratified the Framework Convention on Climate
Change will meet in Berlin on March 28 to resolve contentious
issues sidestepped in the convention, and establish mechanisms
for effective implementation. The options for managing climate
change selected by the parties to the convention will influence
acceptance within each country and flexibility to adapt to
changes in science and politics. Discusses where the Berlin
preparations stand and what lies ahead.
"Scientific Information and Global Change
Policymaking-Editorial Essay," R.A. Pielke Jr. (ESIG, NCAR,
POB 3000, Boulder CO 80307) Clim. Change, 28(4),
315-319, Dec. 1994
The U.S. Office of Technology Assessment and others have
concluded that the U.S. Global Change Research Program will
produce "good science," but not necessarily provide the
type of "usable" scientific information needed as a
basis for policy decisions. Discusses why this is so, and what
constitutes "usable information." Science programs must
incorporate policy questions so that they can continually offer
policy makers an evolving, wide range of alternative means to
achieve their preferences.
items on energy efficiency constitute the Nov. 1994 issue of Environment, 36(9):
"Improving Energy Efficiency: Making a 'No Regrets'
Option Work," T.J. Wilbanks (Developing Country Program, Oak
Ridge Natl. Lab., Oak Ridge TN 37831), 16-20, 36-44. Improvements
in energy efficiency could help meet the need for more energy
services in developing countries, and we could realize this
potential much sooner if actions are taken on the three factors
that determine energy efficiency improvement: technology,
economic incentives, and institutional structures. But energy
efficiency must not be viewed as the answer to every
energy-environment-development question, since energy inefficiency
is a depletable resource.
"Renewable Energy Technology: An Urgent Need, a Hard
Sell," K.L. Kozloff (World Resour. Inst., 1709 New York Ave.
NW, Washington DC 20006) 4-9, 25-41. Regulatory changes are
causing the U.S. electricity industry to redefine itself in a
competitive setting. Because competition is the biggest hurdle
for the advancement of renewable energy, the U.S. needs a
national strategy to promote alternative technologies.
"A Bright Future: Energy Efficiency Programs at Electric
Utilities," E. Hirst (Oak Ridge Natl. Lab., Oak Ridge TN
37831), 10-15, 31-36. Energy efficiency or demand-side management
programs encourage electric utility customers to reduce or better
time their electricity use. With the right support, they could
mean a bright energy-efficient future.
"Progress of a Policy Experiment: Climate Challenge Interim
Report Card," S. Sturges (AES Corp.), J.B. Hewitt, The
Electricity J., 8(1), 60-70, Jan.-Feb. 1995.
The Clinton administration's Climate Challenge, a
government-industry program, gives the electric utility industry
its first chance to respond to climate change in the absence of
regulations. Initial reports suggest that since utilities are
taking the program seriously, it will generate significant
the book Buying Greenhouse Insurance: The Economic Costs of CO2
Emission Limits (A.S. Manne, R. G. Richels, MIT Press, 1992),
by L.D.D. Harvey (Dept. Geog., Univ. Toronto, 100 St. George St.,
Toronto ON M5S 1A1, Can.), Clim. Change, 28(4),
405-410, Dec. 1994.
This extensive review constitutes a commentary on climate
change policy by Harvey, who considers the book essential
reading. From the results presented in the book he concludes that
the estimated costs of constraining CO2 emissions,
given carefully designed policies, are still too high.
Social Costs of Greenhouse Gas Emissions: An Expected Value
Approach," S. Fankhauser (CSERGE, Univ. E. Anglia, Norwich
NR4 7TJ, UK), The Energy J., 15(2), 157-184, Apr.
The stochastic greenhouse damage model used, in which the key
parameters are random, permits a closer representation of current
scientific understanding and enables calculation of a damage
probability distribution. It projects costs of $20 per ton of
carbon emitted between 1991 and 2000, rising to $28 in 2021-2030,
with similar costs for emissions of methane and nitrous oxide.
The distribution is positively skewed, showing that the
predominant method of using best-guess values will underestimate
"Economic Global Warming Potentials," M.K. Wallis (Sch.
Math., Univ. Wales, Senghennydd Rd., Cardiff CF2 4AY, UK), N.J.D.
Lucas, Intl. J. Energy Res., 18, 57-62, Jan. 1994.
Offers a reformulation of global warming potentials that
combines the time-horizon and discounting definitions, and
incorporates the rate of change of atmospheric forcing. Only the
discounting definition gives realistic results for changing
forcing, as shown by application to the short-lived greenhouse
publication: Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for
Global Change, devoted to scientific, technical,
socioeconomic and policy concerns, begins quarterly publication
in 1995 through Kluwer Academic Publishers. Instructions for
authors are available from the editors: Joe Wisniewski (tel:
703-534-3005; fax: 703-534-0462) and Robert Dixon (tel:
202-426-0011; fax: 202-426-1540).
Guide to Publishers
Index of Abbreviations