February 28, 2007
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Global Climate Change Digest
A Guide to Information on Greenhouse Gases and Ozone Depletion
Published July 1988 through June 1999
FROM VOLUME 8, NUMBER 1, JANUARY 1995
GLOBAL AND REGIONAL MODELING
Climate Transitions in a Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere Model," S.
Rahmstorf (Inst. Meereskunde, Düsternbrooker Weg 20, 24105 Kiel,
Ger.), 82-85. Recent geochemical data suggest that rapid climate
fluctuations in the North Atlantic at the end of the last glacial
resulted when ocean circulation switched between a warm, deep
mode and a cold, shallow mode. The simulations presented here
show this kind of transition, triggered by a brief freshwater
pulse, resulting in a drop in sea surface temperature by up to
5·C within 10 years.
"Destabilization of the Thermohaline Circulation by
Atmospheric Eddy Transports," M. Nakamura (Ctr. Meteor.
& Oceanog., Mass. Inst. Technol., Cambridge MA 02139), P.H.
Stone, J. Marotzke, J. Clim., 7(12), 1870-1882,
Simple process models were developed to investigate the role
of atmosphere-ocean feedbacks in the stability of the current
mode of the North Atlantic thermohaline circulation. A positive
feedback between meridional atmospheric transport of moisture and
the high-latitude sinking thermohaline circulation was found to
destabilize the latter. In addition, experiments show that
results from coupled models that require adjustments in the
surface fluxes must be interpreted with caution. (See related
Res. News note.)
related items from Global & Planetary Change, 9(3-4),
"Simulating Past Climates. The Data-Model
Connection," R.Z. Poore (U.S. Geol. Survey, MS 955, Natl.
Ctr., Reston VA 22092), M.A. Chandler, 165-167. An editorial on
the cooperation needed between data and modeling groups for
successful paleoclimatic modeling. The following two papers
describe such, involving the Pliocene Research, Interpretation
and Synoptic Mapping Project (PRISM) and the GISS GCM.
"Joint Investigations of the Middle Pliocene Climate I:
PRISM Paleoenvironmental Reconstructions," H. Dowsett (U.S.
Geol. Survey, MS 970, Natl. Ctr., Reston VA 22092), R. Thompson
et al., 169-195.
"Joint Investigations of the Middle Pliocene Climate II:
GISS GCM Northern Hemisphere Results," M. Chandler (NASA
Goddard Inst. Space Studies, 2880 Broadway, New York NY 10025),
D. Rind, R. Thompson, 197-219.
"Global Emissions Inventories to Aid Atmospheric
Modelers," T.E. Graedel (AT&T Bell Labs., Murray Hill NJ
07974), Eos, 75(50), 585, 591, Dec. 13, 1994.
Describes the Global Emissions Inventory Activity (GEIA) of
the IGBP International Global Atmospheric Chemistry Project,
which is developing a standardized emissions inventory intended
to remove some of the uncertainty inherent in intermodel
"NCAR CCM2 Simulation of the Modern Antarctic Climate,"
R.-Y. Tzeng (Dept. Atmos. Sci., Natl. Central Univ., Chungli,
Taiwan 320, Republic of China), D.H. Bromwich et al., J.
Geophys. Res., 99(D11), 23,131-23,148, Nov. 20, 1994.
Finds the performance of version 2 of the NCAR Community
Climate Model to be much better than that of CCM1-T42, and
therefore preferable for climate change studies especially over
"Albedo as a Modulator of Climate Response to Tropical
Deforestation," P.A. Dirmeyer (Ctr. Ocean-Land-Atmos.
Studies, 401 Powder Mill Rd., S. 302, Calverton MD 20705), J.
Shukla, J. Geophys. Res., 99(D10), 20,863-20,877,
Oct. 20, 1994.
Uses a GCM with land surface properties represented by the
simplified Simple Biosphere model to evaluate deforestation
effects in the Amazon basin. The change in climate, particularly
rainfall, strongly depends on the change in surface albedo that
"Initial Radiative Perturbations and Their Responses in the
Adem Thermodynamic Model," R. Garduño (Centro de Ciencias
de la Atmósfera, UNAM, Mexico), J. Adem, World Resour. Rev.,
6(3), 343-349, Oct. 1994.
Initial radiative perturbation (increase of net radiation at
the tropopause) is computed for a CO2 doubling and a
±1% solar constant change. Corresponding surface temperature
changes are examined with and without climate feedbacks.
"Impact of Increased CO2 on Simulated ENSO-Like
Phenomena," T.R. Knutson (GFDL, POB 308, Princeton NJ
08542), S. Manabe, Geophys. Res. Lett., 21(21),
2295-2298, Oct. 15, 1994.
Multi-century experiments using a coupled ocean-atmosphere GCM
with 4xCO2 show that, despite an order 5K warming of
the tropical Pacific and an order 50% increase in time-mean
atmospheric water vapor, ENSO-like SST fluctuations do not
intensify, but rather decrease slightly.
Proposal for the Intercomparison of the Dynamical Cores of
Atmospheric General Circulation Models," I.M. Held (GFDL,
POB 308, Princeton NJ 08542), M.J. Suarez, Bull. Amer. Meteor.
Soc., 75(10), 1825-1830, Oct. 1994.
Proposes a benchmark calculation for evaluating the dynamical
cores of GCMs independently of the physical parameterizations,
which is particularly appropriate for comparing climate models.
Illustrates by comparing a spectral and a finite difference
"Transient Temperature and Sea Level Response of a
Two-Dimensional Ocean-Climate Model to Greenhouse Gas
Increases," L.D.D. Harvey (Dept. Geog. Univ. Toronto,
Toronto ON M5S 1A1, Can.), J. Geophys. Res., 99(C9),
18,447-18,466, Sep. 15, 1994.
Most experiments show a transient reduction in the
thermohaline overturning flux of 15-30%, although in some cases a
near-total circulation collapse occurs within the first 100 years
and lasts 700-1000 years. The steady-state ocean warming is
roughly uniform with depth, and in most experiments is equal to
the global mean surface warming (3·C for 6 W/m-2 forcing
perturbation), which produces a sea level rise of 2-3 m due to
Experimental Cloud Lidar Pilot Study (ECLIPS) for Cloud-Radiation
Research," C.M. Platt (CSIRO, Pvt. Bag 1, Mordialloc,
Victoria 3195, Australia), S.A. Young et al., Bull. Amer.
Meteor. Soc., 75(9), 1635-1654, Sep. 1994.
The ECLIPS data are a valuable resource for cloud
parameterizations in models, and for model validations.
"CARAIB: A Global Model of Terrestrial Biological
Productivity," P. Warnant (Inst. Astrophys., Univ. Liège, 5
ave. Cointe, B-4000 Liège, Belg.), L. François, et al.,
Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 8(3), 255-270, Sep. 1994.
(See Global Climate Change Digest, Nov.-Dec. 1994.)
"Hydrologic and Atmospheric Models: The (Continuing) Problem
of Discordant Scales," S.W. Hostetler (USGS, 3215 Marine
St., Boulder CO 80303), Clim. Change, 27(4),
345-350, Aug. 1994.
A lengthy comment on the difficulties of relating global,
regional and local scales in models.
in J. Geophys. Res., 99(D8), Aug. 20, 1994:
"Radiative-Convective Model with an Explicit Hydrologic
Cycle. 2. Sensitivity to Large Changes in Solar Forcing,"
N.O. Rennó (Lawrence Livermore Natl. Lab., POB 808, Livermore CA
94550), P.H. Stone, K.A. Emanuel, 17,001-17,020. Cumulus
convection parameterization schemes currently used in GCMs employ
different assumptions about moistening, causing the critical
solar forcing for a runaway greenhouse effect to be very
sensitive to the convection scheme used and the microphysics of
"Characteristics of Stratosphere-Troposphere Exchange
[STE] in a General Circulation Model," P.W. Mote (Dept.
Meteor., Univ. Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH9 3JZ, UK), J.R. Holton,
B.A. Boville, 16,815-16,829. Examines mass and water vapor
exchange and the behavior of idealized tracers and parcels to
diagnose STE in the NCAR CCM2. The model correctly represents the
seasonality of mass exchange, but values are uniformly too
strong. Water vapor indicates that tropical exchange is not well
represented, a situation that could influence model studies of
"Storm Tracks in a High-Resolution GCM with Doubled Carbon
Dioxide," N.M.J. Hall (Dept. Meteor., Univ. Reading, 2 Early
Gate, Whiteknights, Reading, Berkshire RG6 2AU, UK), B.J. Hoskins
et al., Quart. J. Royal Meteor. Soc., 120(519),
1209-1230, July 1994 (Part B).
On synoptic time scales, indicators of storm-track activity
such as eddy kinetic energy are shifted northwards and
intensified downstream by doubled CO2, especially in
the Atlantic. Total zonal-mean poleward energy transport is only
slightly different, but doubled CO2 changes the
transient eddy contribution.
"Sensitivity of a Coupled Atmosphere-Dynamic Upper Ocean GCM
to Variations of CO2, Solar Constant, and Orbital
Forcing," J. Syktus (Div. Atmos. Res., CSIRO, Priv. Bag 1,
Mordialloc, Victoria 3195, Australia), H. Gordon, J. Chappell, Geophys.
Res. Lett., 21(15), 1599-1602, July 15, 1994.
Shows that orbital forcing effects depend strongly on CO2
concentration, suggesting that the Quaternary "ice age"
mode of climate may have been initiated by a CO2
decrease below a critical value, probably 350-450 ppm.
"Photosynthetic Climate in Selected Regions During the
Northern Hemisphere Growing Season," R.T. Pinker (Dept.
Meteor., Univ. Maryland, College Pk. MD 20742), I. Laszlo, F.
Miskolczi, Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 8(2),
117-125, June 1994.
Provides the first consistent information on the temporal and
spatial variability in photosynthetic radiation on a continental
scale for developing new parameterizations of net primary
productivity and evapotranspiration.
"Assessing the Onset of Spring: A Climatological
Perspective," M.D. Schwartz (Dept. Geog., Sabin Hall, Univ.
Wisconsin, POB 413, Milwaukee WI 53201), Phys. Geog., 14(6),
536-550, Nov.-Dec. 1993.
Uses 1908-1987 climatic records and phenological models to
document the "green wave," a biospheric event signaling
corresponding changes in the physical nature of the surface layer
and in large-scale weather patterns. This association is relevant
to many types of global change models.
"Sensitivity of a GCM Climate Simulation to Differences in
Continental versus Maritime Cloud Drop Size," J.T. Kiehl
(NCAR, POB 3000, Boulder CO 80307), J. Geophys. Res., 99(D11),
23,107-23,115, Nov. 20, 1994.
items from J. Geophys. Res., 99(D10), Oct. 20,
"Climate Statistics from the [NCAR CCM2]," J.J. Hack
(NCAR, POB 3000, Boulder CO 80307), B.A. Boville et al.,
"The Simulated Earth Radiation Budget of the [NCAR CCM2]
and Comparisons with [ERBE]," J.T. Kiehl (addr. immed.
above), J.J. Hack, B.P. Briegleb, 20,815-20,827.
"Response of an Atmospheric General Circulation Model to
Radiative Forcing of Tropical Clouds," S.C. Sherwood
(Scripps Inst. Oceanog., La Jolla CA 92093), V. Ramanathan et
items from ibid., 99(D9), Sep. 20, 1994:
"Response of a General Circulation Model to a Change in
Cloud Solar Forcing: Model Feedbacks and Comparison with
Satellite Data," J.A. Ridout (Naval Res. Lab., 7 Grace
Hopper Ave., Box 2, Monterey CA 93943), B. Chertok, R. Gelaro,
"Simulating Fluxes from Heterogeneous Land Surfaces:
Explicit Subgrid Method Employing the Biosphere-Atmosphere
Transfer Scheme (BATS)," A. Seth (NCAR, POB 3000, Boulder CO
80307), P. Giorgi, R.E. Dickinson, 18,651-18,667.
"Water Activities, Densities and Refractive Indices of
Aqueous Sulfates and Sodium Nitrate Droplets of Atmospheric
Importance," I.N. Tang (Brookhaven Natl. Lab, Upton NY
11973), H.R. Munkelwitz, 18,801-18,808.
"Climatology and Variability in the ECHO Coupled GCM,"
M. Latif (M. Planck Inst. Meteor., Bundesstr. 55, D-20146
Hamburg, Ger.), T. Stockdale et al., Tellus, 46A(4),
351-366, Aug. 1994.
"Mean Climate and Transience in the Tropics of the UGAMP
GCM: Sensitivity to Convective Parameterization," J. Slingo
(Ctr. Global Atmos. Modeling, Dept. Meteor., Univ. Reading,
Reading RG6 2AU, UK), M. Blackburn et al., Quart. J. Royal
Meteor. Soc., 120(518), 881-922, July 1994 (Part A).
"Sea-Ice Dynamics and CO2 Sensitivity in a Global
Climate Model," D. Pollard (NCAR, POB 3000, Boulder CO
80307), S.L. Thompson, Atmos.-Ocean, 32(2),
449-467, June 1994.
"Sensitivity of the Australian Surface Hydrology and Energy
Budgets to a Doubling of CO2," R.A. Coleman (Bur.
Meteor. Res. Ctr., GPO Box 1289K, Melbourne, Vic. 3001,
Australia), B.J. McAvaney, R.T. Wetherald, Aust. Meteor. Mag., 43(2),
105-116, June 1994.
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Index of Abbreviations